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TitreThe upper mantle beneath the South Atlantic Ocean, South America and Africa from waveform tomography with massive data sets
AuteurCelli, N L; Lebedev, S; Schaeffer, A J; Ravenna, M; Gaina, C
SourceGeophysical Journal International vol. 221, 1, 2020 p. 178-204, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggz574
Année2020
Séries alt.Ressources naturelles Canada, Contribution externe 20200214
ÉditeurOxford University Press
Documentpublication en série
Lang.anglais
DOIhttps://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggz574
Mediapapier; en ligne; numérique
Formatspdf
Lat/Long OENS -75.0000 60.0000 30.0000 -60.0000
Sujetslogiciel; séismologie; craton; lithosphère; manteau terrestre; Sciences et technologie; géomathématique
Illustrationslocation maps; magnetic maps; plots; cross-sections; schematic models
Diffusé2020 01 06
Résumé(disponible en anglais seulement)
We present a tomographic model of the crust, upper mantle and transition zone beneath the South Atlantic, South America and Africa. Taking advantage of the recent growth in broadband data sampling, we compute the model using waveform fits of over 1.2 million vertical-component seismograms, obtained with the automated multimode inversion of surface, S and multiple S waves. Each waveform provides a set of linear equations constraining perturbations with respect to a 3-D reference model within an approximate sensitivity volume. We then combine all equations into a large linear system and solve it for a 3-D model of Sand P-wave speeds and azimuthal anisotropy within the crust, upper mantle and uppermost lower mantle. In South America and Africa, our new model SA2019 reveals detailed structure of the lithosphere, with structure of the cratons within the continents much more complex than seen previously. In South America, lower seismic velocities underneath the transbrasilian lineament (TBL) separate the high-velocity anomalies beneath the Amazon Craton from those beneath the Sao Francisco and Parana Cratons. We image the buried portions of the Amazon Craton, the thick cratonic lithosphere of the Parana and Parnaiba Basins and an apparently cratonic block wedged between western Guyana and the slab to the west of it, unexposed at the surface. Thick cratonic lithosphere is absent under the Archean crust of the Sao Luis, Luis Alves and Rio de La Plata Cratons, next to the continental margin. The Guyana Highlands are underlain by low velocities, indicating hot asthenosphere. In the transition zone, we map the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Chile Rise under Patagonia. Cratonic lithosphere beneath Africa is more fragmented than seen previously, with separate cratonic units observed within the West African and Congo Cratons, and with cratonic lithosphere absent beneath large portions of Archean crust. We image the lateral extent of the Niassa Craton, hypothesized previously and identify a new unit, the Cubango Craton, near the southeast boundary of the grater Congo Craton, with both of these smaller cratons unexposed at the surface. In the South Atlantic, the model reveals the patterns of interaction between the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the nearby hotspots. Low-velocity anomalies beneath major hotspots extend substantially deeper than those beneath the MAR. The Vema Hotspot, in particular, displays a pronounced low-velocity anomaly under the thick, high-velocity lithosphere o f the Cape Basin. A strong low velocity anomaly also underlies the Cameroon Volcanic Line and its offshore extension, between Africa and the MAR. Subtracting the global, age-dependent Vs averages from those in the South Atlantic Basins, we observe areas where the cooling lithosphere is locally hotter than average, corresponding to the location of the Tristan da Cunha, Vema and Trindade hotspots. Beneath the anomalously deep Argentine Basin, we image unusually thick, high-velocity lithosphere, which suggests that its anomalously great depth can be explained, at least to a large extent, by isostatic, negative lithospheric buoyancy.
GEOSCAN ID326626