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TitreCoal resources of Canada
LicenceVeuillez noter que la Licence du gouvernement ouvert - Canada remplace toutes les licences antérieures.
AuteurSmith, G G
SourceCommission géologique du Canada, Études no. 89-4, 1989, 146 pages, (Accès ouvert)
Documentpublication en série
Mediapapier; en ligne; numérique
ProvinceNouvelle-Écosse; Nouveau-Brunswick; Québec; Ontario; Manitoba; Saskatchewan; Alberta; Colombie-Britannique; Yukon; Canada; Territoires du Nord-Ouest; Île-du-Prince-Édouard; Région extracotière de l'ouest; Région extracotière de l'est; Région extracotière du nord; Nunavut; Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador
SNRC1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 67; 66; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 85; 84; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long OENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Sujetscharbon; bassins houilliers; exploitation de la houille; catégories de charbon; ressources; réserves estimées; Plaines Intérieures; Chaînes de montagnes Rocheuses; combustibles fossiles; géologie économique; Cénozoïque; Mésozoïque; Paléozoïque
Illustrationsphotographs; charts
Diffusé1989 05 01; 2011 12 09
Résumé(Sommaire disponible en anglais seulement)
Canada is richly endowed with coal. lts coal resources are widely distributed and have diverse characteristics. These resources occur in a variety of geological, geographical and physiographical environments, and include all coal ranks from lignite to meta-anthracite. They have been commercially exploited for more than 300 years; during the past 15 years, however, coal production in Canada has undergone unprecedented expansion. The diversity in the nation's coal resources puts Canada in a strong position to respond positively to coal development opportunities as national and international coal requirements change. The term "coal" is generic for a rock that comprises mainly plant-derived carbonaceous material and can be applied to rocks having significantly different properties. Coal is formed from peat which, over time, is coalified by heat and pressure that are commonly associated with stratigraphic burial. The formation, accumulation, preservation and alteration of peat relate to geological, biological, ecological and geochemical factors associated with environments of deposition. The depth of burial and degree of thermal maturation of resulting coals relate to tectonic factors that control basin subsidence. Tectonism also causes structural deformation of stratigraphic successions, which can alter the present distribution and character of contained coals. The present distribution and character of coals in Canada reflect environments of deposition, original types of peat-forming vegetal debris, degree of organic maturation, structural deformation and mineralization. Coal resources are found from coastal British Columbia in the west, to the Atlantic Provinces in the east, and in northern Canada. They occur within the following regions (Fig. 1.1): • Coastal British Columbia. • lntermontane British Columbia. • Rocky Mountain Front Ranges and Foothills of British Columbia and Alberta. • lnterior Plains of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. • Hudson Bay Lowland of Ontario. • Atlantic Provinces; New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. • Northern Canada: Yukon Territory and District of Mackenzie; Arctic Archipelago. Each region is geologically, geographically and physiographically distinct. The nature of coal occurrences and coal characteristics vary from region to region. Correspondingly, coal exploration, evaluation, development and resource management must often consider the unique circumstances presented by the region within which the coal deposits occur. ln British Columbia, the low and medium volatile bituminous coal deposits that occur in the East Kootenay and Peace River regions of the Rocky Mountains and Foothills constitute more than two-thirds of Canada's measured and indicated metallurgical coal resource of immediate interest. Several intermontane basins in the interior regions of the province contain important thermal coal deposits, such as the lignitic deposits of the Hat Creek Coal field, and anthracitic deposits of the Groundhog Coalfield. Other thermal coal deposits occur on Vancouver Island and in the Queen Charlotte Islands. ln Alberta, commercially significant coal resources occur throughout the Rocky Mountains, Foothills and Plains regions. Most coal resources of the Rocky Mountains and Inner Foothills are of metallurgical grade, like those of the adjacent East Kootenay and Peace River regions of British Columbia. High volatile bituminous coals, commonly containing less than one per cent sulphur, occur within the Outer Foothills region and are potentially exportable thermal coals. Virtually ail of Canada's subbituminous coal resources, which are particularly suitable for mine-mouth power generation, occur within the Interior Plains of Alberta. Nearly 75 per cent of Canada's measured and indicated thermal coal resources of immediate interest are located in Alberta. Coal deposits that are widely distributed throughout southern Saskatchewan contain most of Canada's lignitic resource inventory, an important source of fuel, particularly suitable for mine-mouth electric power generation. A single extensive lignite coalfield in the Hudson Bay Lowland contains Ontario's only indigenous coal resources, which could become a viable source of fuel for a mine-mouth electric power generating plant. Numerous seams of mainly high volatile bituminous thermal coals occur in New Brunswick, but they are generally thin and have high sulphur content. Although the resource base is relatively small, about 0.5 megatonnes are being mined annually. Nearly 1.5 per cent of Canada's measured coal resources of immediate interest occur in Nova Scotia. These resources comprise high volatile bituminous coals of which about 75 per cent are thermal and 25 per cent are metallurgical grades. The Geological Survey of Canada has been conducting coal geoscience studies for more than a century. Results have provided important information for the nation's public and commercial planning, and industrial development. Current studies are directed toward defining Canada's abundant but diverse coal resources to provide the basis of choice to respond effectively to future coal development opportunities, and to address associated national policy issues within the Federal Government's jurisdiction. The Geological Survey of Canada conducts studies of the nation's coal resources. The Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) assesses Canada's coal reserves. Canada is ranked fifth among nations with respect to the distribution of the world's coal resources. lt contains nearly 4 per cent of the world's coal resources, exceeded only by U.S.S. R., United States, People's Republic of China, and Australia. Although there are currently no means for comparing the reliability of the various national resource estimates included in world coal studies, Canada will always be among the nations that are particularly well-endowed with coal, by virtue of the size of the Canadian landmass that contains coal. About 60 per cent of Canada's coal production is thermal coal of which nearly 90 per cent is used domestically for the generation of electricity, with the balance being exported to destinations around the world. Nearly 40 per cent of Canada's coal production is metallurgical coal of which the vast majority is exported to markets around the world. Estimated coal resources of immediate and future interest in various parts of Canada, categorized by rank classes that reflect probable ultimate use, are summarized in Table 1.1. A summary by province and territory, of the coal resources of immediate interest is provided in Table 1.2. Variations between these estimates and those produced by provincial government agencies reflect differences in criteria used for estimating coal resources and/or categories in which these estimates are reported.