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TitleSnow cover measurement networks / Réseaux nivométriques
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AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 8, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; precipitation; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the location of the snow course stations and the agencies that operate them. Most Canadian snow courses are operated by the federal Department of Fisheries and the Environment and the provincial government departments concerned with water resources. Though the principles of snow surveying were largely developed in the United States, the Canadian experience has been lengthy, with courses established and continuously operated in British Columbia, the Bow River basin of Alberta, and the Shawinigan River basin in Quebec and in Newfoundland from the early years of the 20th century. Other agencies became involved in the thirties and forties. National Research Council supported important studies across the country on the physical properties of snow. Recent network growth may be attributed generally to an increasing government role in planning resource development. The disastrous Red River flood of 1951 encouraged the Manitoba Department of Mines and Natural Resources to develop an extensive r
GEOSCAN ID295274

TitleAnnual snowfall / Chutes de neige annuelles
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AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 9, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; precipitation; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the annual snowfall (in centimetres) based on the 30-year period 1941-1970. Snowfall is measured by inserting a ruler into the new snow at several points to obtain its depth and to estimate the degree of drifting or scouring that has occurred. The water equivalent of snowfall for most climatologically stations is estimated by simply assuming the freshly fallen snow has a density of 0.10 gram per cubic centimetre. On the average, this is a sound approximation over large parts of the country, but variations from 0.05 to 0.15 are common from storm to storm, and in the drier regions the average density is probably closer to 0.08 gram per cubic centimetre. Since 1961 the Nipher shielded snow gauge has been used at principal stations to derive the water equivalent of snowfalls. Snow collected in the gauge is melted to obtain this value. At remote stations snowfall is measured in terms of water equivalent by automatic and storage gauges, such as the Fischer and Porter Gauge and the Sacramento
GEOSCAN ID295275

TitleDepth, duration, and frequency of point rainfall - 10-minute rainfall for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year and 25-year return periods. / Hauteur, durée et fréquence des précipitations ponctuelles - intervalle de 10 minutes et périodes de récurcurrence de 2, 5, 10 et 25 ans.
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 4, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; precipitation; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The plate contains four maps of 10 minute rainfalls (in millimetres) for a 2 year return period, a 5 year return period, a 10 year return period and a 25 year return period. Each map has a detailed inset of the Vancouver area. These four maps were not analyzed for the mountainous parts of Canada in British Columbia and the Yukon because of the limited number of stations, the non-representative nature of the valley stations and the variability of precipitation owing to the orographic effects. From the incomplete data, it is impossible to draw accurate isolines of short duration rainfall amounts on maps of national scale. Point values for all stations west of the Rocky Mountain range and in the Yukon have been plotted for durations of less than 24 hours. For the Vancouver metropolitan area, recording rain gauges have been in operation for several years. For some of these stations point rainfall data have been plotted on inset maps. The density of climatological stations varies widely as does populatio
GEOSCAN ID295276

TitleDepth, duration and frequency of point rainfall - 60 minute rainfall for 2-year, 5-year, 10 year and 25-year return periods / Hauteur, durée et fréquence des précipitaions ponctuelles - intervalle de 60 minutes et périodes de récurrence de 2, 5, 10 et 25 ans
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 5, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; precipitation; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The plate contains four maps of 60 minute rainfalls (in millimetres) for a 2 year return period, a 5 year return period, a 10 year return period and a 25 year return period. Each map has a detailed inset of the Vancouver area. These four maps were not analyzed for the mountainous parts of Canada in British Columbia and the Yukon because of the limited number of stations, the non-representative nature of the valley stations and the variability of precipitation owing to the orographic effects. From the incomplete data, it is impossible to draw accurate isolines of short duration rainfall amounts on maps of national scale. Point values for all stations west of the Rocky Mountain range and in the Yukon have been plotted for durations of less than 24 hours. For the Vancouver metropolitan area, recording rain gauges have been in operation for several years. For some of these stations point rainfall data have been plotted on inset maps. The density of climatological stations varies widely as does populatio
GEOSCAN ID295277

TitleDepth, duration and frequency of point rainfall - 24-hour rainfall for 2-year, 5-year, 10 year and 25-year return periods / Hauteur, durée et fréquence des précipitaions ponctuelles - intervalle de 24 heures et périodes de récurrence de 2, 5, 10 et 25 ans
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 6, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; precipitation; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The plate contains four maps of 24 hour rainfalls (in millimetres) for a 2 year return period, a 5 year return period, a 10 year return period and a 25 year return period. Each map has a detailed inset of the Vancouver area. These four maps were not analyzed for the mountainous parts of Canada in British Columbia and the Yukon because of the limited number of stations, the non-representative nature of the valley stations and the variability of precipitation owing to the orographic effects. From the incomplete data, it is impossible to draw accurate isolines of short duration rainfall amounts on maps of national scale. Point values for all stations west of the Rocky Mountain range and in the Yukon have been plotted for durations of less than 24 hours. For the Vancouver metropolitan area, recording rain gauges have been in operation for several years. For some of these stations point rainfall data have been plotted on inset maps. The density of climatological stations varies widely as does population
GEOSCAN ID295278

TitleDepth, duration, and frequency of point rainfall - ratios of 6-hour, 48-hour, and 72-hour rainfall to 24-hour extremes; location of recording rain gauges used in the analyses / Hauteur, durée et fréquence des précipitations ponctuelles - rapports des valeurs de 6, 48 et 72 heures aux valeurs extrêmes de 24 heures; emplacement des pluviomètres enregistreurs employés dans les analyses
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AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 7, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; precipitation; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The plate contains four maps. The first map shows the location of recording rain gauges used in the map and their number of years of record. The three other maps show the ratio 6-hour/24-hour rainfall extremes, the ratio 48-hour/24-hour rainfall extremes and the ratio 72-hour/24-hour rainfall extremes. Ratios of 6-hour/24-hour rainfall vary from less than 0.5 to above 0.8, the lowest being over coastal areas that are more affected by travelling low pressure systems, and the highest over the Prairies and Southern Ontario where convective activity and intense thunderstorms of short duration predominate. The isolines of the 48-hour/24-hour rainfall ratio show less spatial variation than the other ratios, varying from 1.1 to 1.4. Generally the lowest values are in eastern Canada. The other rainfall ratio chart, 72-hour/24-hour, is very similar to the 48-hour/24-hour chart. The highest ratios above 1.6 are confined to the coastal mountains of British Columbia and along the eastern shore of Baffin Island
GEOSCAN ID295279

TitleMean maximum depth of snow and time of occurrence / Épaisseur maximale moyenne de neige et date moyenne d'observation
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 11, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; precipitation; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the mean maximum depth of snow in centimetres, the standard deviation of the mean maximum depth of snow, and the mean date of mean maximum depth of snow. The information shown on the map is compiled from 1961 1970 snow course data in conjunction with 1955 1972 snow depth data. An appreciation of the quantity of snow in storage within a drainage basin during late winter is critical to spring flood forecasting. As well, decisions regarding overland transport and wildlife control can be rationally taken. Snow courses have been established to estimate regional snow depth and water equivalent, but the cover is also measured by all principal meteorological stations and by many climatological stations. The depth is measured either by inserting a graduated probe in a relatively drift-free area or by recording the height of the snow indicated by a stationary object such as a stake positioned in the ground prior to snow accumulation. Since the snow surface is irregular in most areas because o
GEOSCAN ID295280

TitleRadiation / Rayonnement
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AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 12, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; temperature; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The plate contains four maps: (1) map of the global solar radiation network and sunshine recorder network; (2) annual global solar radiation; (3) June cloudless day radiation; and (4) mean annual net radiation. Stations recorded data to the end of 1970. Solar and net radiation are measured from a network of over 50 stations and supplementary information is also provided by over 200 sunshine recorder stations. Regular network data is published in a Monthly Radiation Summary, which started in 1952 with daily totals, then added hourly totals in 1960. The Canadian radiation network has been rather unevenly distributed spatially to allow good quantitative estimates to be made for all locations. Fortunately, however, there is an excellent correlation between monthly means of the duration of sunshine and monthly means of global solar radiation. The sunshine network is more extensive so that interpolated values can be obtained except where the density is low, as for example, in the North.
GEOSCAN ID295281

TitleMean January daily temperature / Température quotidienne moyenne en janvier
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AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 14, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; temperature; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the mean January daily temperature based on the 30-year period 1941-1970. The lowest mean January daily temperatures are below -35 degrees Celsius and are located on Ellesmere Island and on Axel Heiberg Island and south of the Boothia Peninsula in Nunavut. The highest mean January daily temperatures are above 0 degrees Celsius and are located on the west coast of British Columbia. Generally, the mean increases from north to south, from -35 to -2.5 degrees Celsius. In Canada temperature regimes change drastically from season to season, and even within a season there are often marked changes which affect the whole nature and character of outside activities. The major factors that affect temperature are latitude and thus the length of daylight; elevation; distribution of land and water; and prevailing winds and storm tracks. Although the least direct and the least intense incoming solar radiation occurs in December, there is a lag in the cooling of the Earths surface. As a result, the col
GEOSCAN ID295282

TitleMean July daily temperature / Température quotidienne moyenne en juillet
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 15, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; temperature; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the mean daily temperatures based on the 30-year period 1941-1970 for the warmest month in Canada. Although, the most direct and the most intense incoming solar radiation occurs in June, there is a lag in the warming of the Earths surface. As a result the warmest month in Canada is normally July. The lowest mean July temperatures are below 5 degrees Celsius and are located in the Arctic Islands. The highest mean July daily temperatures are above 20 degrees Celsius and are located in southern Ontario, southern Quebec, south of Winnipeg, Manitoba, the Medicine Hat area of Alberta and in some valleys in the interior of British Columbia. Generally, the mean increases from north to south, from 2.5 to 22.5 degrees Celsius. In British Columbia, the warmer temperatures are in river basins of the Cordillera. In fact, all valleys of the Cordillera are warmer than the surrounding slopes. In winter, however, atmospheric inversions may result in valleys being warmer or colder than higher terrain. T
GEOSCAN ID295283

TitleFreeze-up and break-up of rivers and lakes / Gel et débâcle des glaces des cours d'eau et des lacs
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 19, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; climate; runoff; lakes; rivers; water levels
Abstract(unpublished)
The plate contains four maps showing the mean river freeze-over date, the mean lake freeze-over date, the mean river ice-free date and the mean lake ice free date. The four maps depict, in a general way, the average dates on which freshwater bodies in Canada become completely ice-covered in the fall, and become completely ice-free in the spring. The formation of an ice cover on a water body is called freeze-up; and the melting and dissipation of this ice cover is called break-up. Freeze-up begins when surface water is cooled to 0 degrees Celsius and ice crystals begin to form; it ends when the water body has attained its maximum ice coverage. Most lakes freeze over completely; rivers may or may not, depending on their location, size, and flow characteristics. The final stage of the freeze-up process may be termed freeze-over. Break-up normally begins when air temperatures rise above 0 degrees Celsius, and when surface and internal melting of the ice sheet begins. The process is aided by the action
GEOSCAN ID295284

TitleRiver systems of Canada / Réseaux fluviaux du Canada
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AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 20, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; lakes; rivers
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the location of rivers, glaciers and the six physiographic regions of Canada. Rivers serve as the natural drainage channels for surface waters. The network formed by river systems receives water from two main sources: runoff and base flow. Runoff is that part of precipitation which flows toward the river on the ground surface (surface runoff) or within the soil (subsurface runoff or interflow). Evapotranspiration and flow to the groundwater are excluded. To understand the evolution of the pattern of river systems seen on the map it is necessary to assume that the physical processes which are in evidence today are the same as those which have operated throughout the earth's history. Given this assumption of continuity, it becomes apparent that river evolution may be attributed to a number of factors, including changing climate and precipitation, tilting of the earth's surface, glaciation and other geologic processes, ground cover, and man's activities. Possibly the most important factor
GEOSCAN ID295285

TitleStreamflow gauging stations / Stations de jaugeage du débit
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 21, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; water levels
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the location and the number of years of recorded data for the Water Survey of Canada streamflow gauging stations and the Quebec Department of Natural Resources stations. Almost 9 per cent of all the world's river water which flows to the oceans has its source within Canada's boundaries. Because water is an extremely valuable natural resource, it is vital to monitor Canada's rivers for a continuous assessment of streamflow distribution and its variability. The stations depicted on the map represent points where water level measurements are made and converted to streamflow discharge (in cubic feet per second or cubic metres per second). Water levels, called stage, are translated to discharge by means of a stage-discharge curve or rating curve, which is established by measuring discharges for various stages as they occur throughout the year. The individual discharge measurements are made by determining the velocity profile or mean velocity for incremental portions of the total river cross
GEOSCAN ID295286

TitleLarge lakes / Lacs à grande étendue
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 18, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; lakes
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the location of 565 lakes and reservoirs with a total lake area larger than 100 square kilometres or 38.6 square miles. A table shows the fifteen largest lakes ranked by their area with their maximum depth. An examination of inland hydrologic subsystems must stress the roles of lakes and lake systems. This is particularly true in Canada, where fresh water covers about 8 per cent of the surface area, an area greater than the province of Alberta, which comprises about 5 per cent of the Canadian landmass. The rate at which water is evaporated from large lake surfaces depends on the surface temperature of lakes. Although the hydraulic flow-through forces are the most significant in influencing the rate at which lakes lose water downstream on the surface, lake currents may also be established because of horizontal differences in lake water density. Wind-induced seiches have often caused substantial rapid fluctuations in lake levels, resulting in flooding and other water management problems
GEOSCAN ID295287

TitleAnnual large river flow / Débit annuel des grands cours d'eau
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 22, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; stream flow
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the six major drainage areas in Canada, the major diversions in 1975 and the flow (in cubic metres per second) of rivers whose mean annual flow at the outlet of their river basin exceeds 400 cubic metres per second. The Mackenzie and the St. Lawrence rivers have the two largest annual flows. The world's largest river, the Amazon, has an average discharge of 212,000 cubic metres per second; more than one-sixth of the world's total river discharge. The Congo, second largest, has an average discharge of 39,600 cubic metres per second, less than one-fifth the flow of the Amazon. The largest river in North America, the Mississippi, has an average discharge of 17,300 cubic metres per second. Canada's largest, the St. Lawrence, discharges 10,100 cubic metres per second, at Nicolet; her second largest, the Mackenzie, flows into the Arctic Ocean with a mean annual discharge of 9,910 cubic metres per second. Discharges for the map were estimated at the river mouth or where the river crossed the
GEOSCAN ID295288

TitleVariation of monthly river flows / Variation des débits mensuels des cours d'eau
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 23, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; stream flow
Abstract(unpublished)
The plate shows a graph of the maximum and minimum monthly mean flow and mean monthly river flow for 36 selected river gauging stations. Thirty-six gauging stations across Canada were selected to represent a cross section of river types and sizes. Most of the rivers are natural flow; however, minor regulation does occur on some for various reasons, such as hydro development, storage for dry periods, irrigation, and flood prevention. The shape of each plot shown on the map depends to a large extent on the amount of storage in each basin. For example, the Saskatchewan River basin has comparatively little storage and a sharp peak and dip, while the Churchill River basin has a large amount of natural lake storage and a smoother curve. The large storage tends to level out flows and reduce the predominance of the peak flow in the river. A good example of this effect is the St. Lawrence River where, because of the very large storage of the Great Lakes, little variation is evident.
GEOSCAN ID295289

TitleAnnual runoff / Écoulement annuel
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 24, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; stream flow; runoff
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the annual runoff in millimetres. Annual runoff varies from year to year owing to variations in precipitation, evaporation, and natural storage. The map presents the long-term average of these annual variations. The annual runoff is smallest in southern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta with values lower than 25 millimetres. The greatest annual runoff occurs on the west coast of British Columbia where values reach over 3200 millimetres. In the east of the country, the values are around 1000 to 1400 millimetres on the coast of Newfoundland and decrease as one goes west to reach values lower than 200 millimetres in Manitoba. The map has been compiled using actual and synthesized data from a number of sources. In most parts of the country, isolines of mean annual runoff are shown at 100-millimetre intervals, but for mountainous terrain, particularly in British Columbia, such an interval is not possible on a map of this scale. A few representatives isolines are shown, to indicate the t
GEOSCAN ID295290

TitleWater quality networks / Réseaux de contrôle de la qualité des eaux
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 27, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; water quality
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the locations of water quality network stations operated by the federal Water Quality Branch, Department of Fisheries and the Environment, and the provincial Water Quality Branches of Quebec, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia. The federal and provincial monitoring programs provide natural water quality data, data on environmental contaminants, and interpretive information to a wide field of users in support of water resources management programs, pollution control and environmental assessment studies, legislation and research, and federal-provincial, interprovincial, and international agreements. The programs are designed essentially to detect and quantify water pollution, to determine water quality trends on a national and regional basis, and to measure the effectiveness of remedial pollution control measures on surface waters. In this way a better understanding will be achieved of the behaviour and fate of pollutants in the environment and their effects on physical
GEOSCAN ID295291

TitleWater quality of surface waters / Qualité des eaux de surface
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 28, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; lakes; rivers; water quality
Abstract(unpublished)
The plate contains four maps showing the Hardness of Surface Water, Total Dissolved Solids of Surface Waters, Turbidity of Surface Waters and the Chemical Quality of Typical Surface Waters of Canada. These water quality maps were based on data collected from 1970 and 1971 at national river monitoring stations. Only stations with five or more observations over the 2-year period were considered in the compilation. For stations with fewer than five observations and for areas where no data were available, data were extrapolated from surrounding areas. Interpretation is difficult for these maps because it is difficult to generalize on such a broad basis. Some of the provinces, as well as the federal government, have set down some criteria for various water uses, such as drinking water supplies, aesthetics and recreational water, shellfish culture, preservation of wildlife, industrial water, agricultural water, and the preservation of aquatic ecosystems. Since the water use categories are so varied, it is
GEOSCAN ID295292

TitleGroundwater observation wells / Puits d'observation des eaux souterraines
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 29, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; aquifers; groundwater
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the location of the six hydrogeological regions in Canada and the location of observation wells. The terrain composition is also shown on the map, which includes crystalline rocks, mixed crystalline rocks, folded sedimentary rocks and flat lying sedimentary rocks. The southern limit of continuous permafrost zone and the limit of the discontinuous permafrost zone appear on the map. Canada has been divided into six hydrogeological regions on the basis of similarities of geology, climate, and topography. These six hydrogeological regions are (1) the Appalachians, covering the area of New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Gaspé and Eastern Townships of Quebec; (2) the St. Lawrence Lowlands, covering Anticosti Island, the extreme southern area of Quebec, and the southern part of Ontario; (3) the Canadian Shield, lying north of the St. Lawrence Lowlands and extending northward to a line joining the north end of Lake Winnipeg to Anticosti Island; (4) the Inte
GEOSCAN ID295293

TitleSurficial hydrogeology / Hydrogéologie des dépôts meubles
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 30, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; groundwater
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the quantity and quality of groundwater. The quality is the total dissolved solids in parts per million. The quantity is expressed in litres per second. During the Pleistocene epoch Canada was almost entirely covered by glaciers. Hence, although there are extensive and hydrologically important alluvial (river) deposits, as well as lesser areas of eolian (wind-deposited) materials, the country's unconsolidated surficial materials are predominantly of glacial derivation. These highly variable and irregular glacial materials contain many of the best local near-surface aquifers. The groundwater resource potential of the materials depends on their intergranular porosity and permeability, which result from the mode of deposition. Some glacial materials were deposited directly by ice; others, by running water and standing meltwater. In size they range from a very fine rock flour and clays through sands and gravels to large blocks. Tills and clays, however, are the predominant glacial deposits
GEOSCAN ID295294

TitleBedrock hydrogeology / Hydrogéologie de la roche de fond
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 31, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; bedrock geology; groundwater
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the location and distribution of bedrock aquifers. The quality is expressed by the total dissolved solids in parts per million and the quantity is expressed in litre per second. Bedrock deposits consist of sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks; Canada possesses all three types. Sedimentary rocks have a much greater aquifer potential than the other two types of bedrock, but because of their depth, they are less accessible and less economical to use than aquifers in the unconsolidated surficial materials. Metamorphic and igneous rocks, which have low porosity and permeability, are, in general, poor aquifers and expensive to exploit, although locally, fracturing and shear zones may provide reasonable groundwater supplies on a domestic or slightly larger scale. It must be realized that both quantity and quality of groundwater can vary markedly from one location to another over very short distances. Because of scale limitations, areas of salt-water intrusion along marine coastlines ha
GEOSCAN ID295295

TitleWinds / Les vents
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 16, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; evaporation; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The plate contains four maps: Annual Winds, March Winds, August Winds and Annual Maximum Wind Speed. For each of the first three maps the frequency of wind, the mean speed of wind, and the frequency of calms are shown. On all three maps the frequency scale is 1 millimetre equals 2 percent. These values are presented for 50 locations across Canada. The map on the annual maximum wind speed shows the annual maximum hourly wind speeds in kilometres per hour for 30 year return period. Various types of anemometers can be used to measure wind. In Canada, two types are used; both employ a set of rotating cups mounted on a mast to indicate wind speed and a weather vane to indicate direction. There are about 200 anemometers of each type in use at the present time. Most anemometers are mounted according to World Meteorological Organization standards, at a height of 10 metres above the effective terrain. That is to say, the anemometer would be 10 metres above ground level over grassland, and 10 metres above the
GEOSCAN ID295296

TitleMean annual lake evaporation / Évaporation annuelle moyenne des eaux lacustres
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 17, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; evaporation; climate; lakes
Abstract(unpublished)
The map represents the mean value (in millimetres) of the annual loss of water through the evaporation process from the surfaces of open water bodies, such as ponds and shallow lakes and reservoirs based on the 10-year period 1957 to 1966. The greatest mean annual lake evaporation (more than 900 millimetres) occurs in southwest Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta. The smaller means (less than 100 millimetres) appear in the Arctic Islands. The mean annual lake evaporation across Canada generally decreases from south to north. The map also shows the location of the stations, which are part of the Class A pan evaporation network used for the analysis and additional stations operating in 1974.The rate at which water evaporates from a lake depends primarily on two factors: first, the rate at which energy is supplied to the evaporating surface to effect the change of state of water to water vapour (requires 2.47 joules per kilogram) and secondly, the rate of diffusion of water vapour away from the surface.
GEOSCAN ID295297

TitlePermafrost / Pergélisol
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 32, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; permafrost
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the location of the continuous permafrost zone and the discontinuous permafrost zone including areas of wide spread permafrost, areas of scattered permafrost and permafrost areas in the Cordillera. The map also indicates for six locations (Inuvik, Yellowknife, Thompson, Resolute, Rankin Inlet and Schefferville) the thickness of permafrost in metres and the ground temperature. Permafrost is a term used to describe the thermal condition of earth materials, such as soil and rock, when their temperature remains below 0 degrees Celsius continuously for more than 1 year. One-half of Canada's land surface is underlain by permafrost. The permafrost region is divided into two zones: continuous in the north and discontinuous in the south. In the continuous zone, permafrost exists everywhere beneath the land surface and varies in thickness from about 100 metres at the southern limit to 1000 metres in the Far North. The active layer usually extends down to the permafrost. In the discontinuous zone
GEOSCAN ID295298

TitleWater balance - derived precipitation and evapotranspiration / Bilan hydrique - précipitation et évapotranspiration dérivées
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 25, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; precipitation; evaporation; evapotranspiration
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows isolines for the annual precipitation and the annual evapotranspiration (in millimetres). Water is normally supplied by precipitation and lost through the processes of evapotranspiration and runoff or it may remain as surface or subsurface storage. Over long periods, generally several years or more, changes in water storage for any particular region may be neglected, and the precipitation (P) is balanced by evapotranspiration (E) and runoff (N). The concept of a water balance was first introduced in the literature by Thornthwaite in 1944 as a means of calculating evapotranspiration. Since that time, the water balance concept has been used in a variety of ways; herein it is viewed conceptually by the following equation: P = N + E. In this form, the water balance equation can serve a dual purpose. It can provide estimates of any of the components P, N, or E as long as the other two are known, or it can serve as a check when each of the components has been measured independently. The der
GEOSCAN ID295299

TitleThe hydrologic cycle / Le cycle hydrologique
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 1, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; hydrologic environment
Abstract(unpublished)
Hydrology is the science concerned with the occurrence and distribution of water on and under the earth. Meteorology is the science dealing with the atmosphere and the movement of water, both as vapour and as liquid, in the air. Both sciences are concerned with the hydrologic cycle - the circulation of water from oceans through the atmosphere back to the oceans or to the land and thence to the oceans by overland and subterranean routes. Water is constantly on the move. Evaporation takes place from a multitude of surfaces ranging from a free water surface on the ocean to the moisture on a leaf. Precipitation falls in various forms - snow, rain, hail. Also, moisture is deposited on the surface of the earth by the formation of dew and frost. Water is stored for varying lengths of time in a number of forms including atmospheric moisture, water in swamps and lakes, soil moisture, groundwater, ice in glaciers, and snow on the ground. Water is transferred from one environment to another by surface runoff,
GEOSCAN ID295300

TitleDates of formation and loss of snow cover / Date d'apparition et de disparition de la couverture neigeuse
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 10, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; precipitation; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows isolines on four different dates: 1) the day of the year when there are less than or equal to 2.5 centimetres of snow that occurs and remain absent for 7 or more days; 2) the standard deviation of the mean date of snow cover loss; 3) the day of year when greater than or equal to 2.5 centimetres of snow occur and remain for more than 7 days; and 4) the standard deviation of the mean date of snow cover formation. The beginning and end of the winter season in Canada is usually identified with the formation and disappearance of snow cover in autumn and spring respectively. The duration of snow cover varies considerably from year to year in the southern fringes of the country and adjacent to the east and west coasts. However, even in northern continental areas early and late snowfalls which leave an ephemeral snow cover are common. The beginning and end of the Canadian snow season is the earliest and latest dates when 2.5 centimetres or more snow was measured. However, this definition is di
GEOSCAN ID295301

TitleSuspended sediment concentration / Concentration des sédiments en suspension
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AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 26, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; water quality
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the concentration (annual load) of suspended sediments into rivers (in milligrams per litre). The load of sediment is lower in the Canadian Shield area and on the Arctic Islands. The greatest loads appear in the Prairie Provinces and in the Cordillera. The map also shows histograms of the mean monthly suspended sediment load in metric tons per day per square kilometre times 10-3 for ten rivers across Canada. Data are compiled from 1961 to 1970. Every year, about 300 million metric tons of sediment is carried by Canadian rivers to the oceans or across national boundaries. To appreciate the volumes involved consider that if the suspended sediment reaching the mouth of the Fraser River over a period of 1 year could be massed in a conical pile with 45-degree slopes, it would reach a height equivalent to a 100-story building (almost 300 metres). Transportation of soil particles from the land surface begins with the action of precipitation. The precipitation dislodges soil particles; the d
GEOSCAN ID295302

TitlePrecipitation networks / Réseaux de précipitation
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AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 2, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; precipitation; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The Atmospheric Environment Service has no network density limitations for stations reporting precipitation. As general guidance it is suggested that gauge separations should be about 15 miles (24 kilometres) in rural areas; a higher density is desirable in more heavily populated areas, and in areas with marked orographic influences. For watershed studies and management, the density of stations should be based on a study of the requirements of each project. In areas of marked variation such as occur in mountainous regions, and coastlines, it is desirable to have long-term stations with exposure representative of the main physiographic features, for example slopes and valley bottoms. Other special networks of precipitation stations are established from time to time, perhaps for research projects or cooperative studies. They are usually operated for short periods in collaboration with universities, government agencies or industrial concerns. The map shows the distribution of precipitation stations in
GEOSCAN ID295303

TitleAnnual precipitation / Précipitations annuelles
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 3, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; precipitation; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
Precipitation is derived from water vapour in the air, and it includes all forms of moisture falling on the earth's surface. Condensed water vapour accumulates in clouds, and precipitation occurs when the constituent ice crystals or water droplets grow too large to resist gravitational attraction to earth. The atmospheric moisture lost through precipitation is replenished by transpiration from vegetation, and by evaporation from the soil and from water bodies. The oceans, which cover 71 per cent of the earth's surface, are the primary source, though large fresh water bodies may be important locally, particularly in more southern latitudes. The map shows the annual precipitation (in millimetres) based on the 30-year period 1941 1970. The map was prepared from measurements at stations in the national precipitation network. In 1974 this network consisted of about 2700 stations, however, many have been in existence for only short periods. For statistical analysis a long series of data is required. To b
GEOSCAN ID295304

TitleAir temperature measurement network / Réseau de mesure de la température de l'air
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 13, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; temperature; climate
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the location of the air temperature measurement stations. Fragmentary meteorological reports were prepared and published by European explorers in the North American Arctic during the late 16th and 17th centuries. Many employees of the Hudson's Bay Company kept careful observations of weather in Western Canada in the 18th and 19th centuries, and their records are still kept in the archives of the Hudson's Bay Company. Regular detailed weather observations were made for Quebec City, between April 1, 1765 and April 30, 1766. Long-term weather observations in Canada involved daily readings of a thermometer and barometer for the years 1768 and 1769 at Fort Prince of Wales on Hudson Bay. During the years 1788 to 1822, forts and fur trading post were built across the western plains where thermometers, wind vanes, and barometers have been set up. The first official meteorological observations were taken at Toronto Magnetic Observatory on Christmas Day, 1839, and continuous daily temperature re
GEOSCAN ID295305

TitleInfluence of glaciers on streamflow / Influence des glaciers sur le débit des cours d'eau
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AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 33, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; stream flow; water levels; glaciers
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows the location of glaciers and ice caps and also indicates the rivers and the lakes, which are fed by a glacier (or an ice cap) meltwater. The purpose of this plate is to identify those streams which are fed by glacier meltwaters. Because of the scale of the map, many minor glaciers have not been shown and, hence, streams fed by such glaciers are not depicted as being glacier fed. The proportion of glacier-derived to non-glacier-derived water decreases as one goes downstream from the glaciers. The map shows many short streams in the Arctic islands and in the mountains of western Canada which are affected by glacier melt. However, the lower reaches of long glacier-fed streams, such as the Mackenzie and Columbia Rivers, are affected very little by the presence of glaciers within their catchments.The 20th century has witnessed the shrinking of many glaciers. The release of this water from storage has produced higher discharges from many glacier-fed streams than would be expected from precip
GEOSCAN ID295306

TitleInfluence of man / Facteurs anthropiques
DownloadDownloads
AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 34, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; hydrology; water levels; dams; electricity
Abstract(unpublished)
The map shows dam sites and reservoir capacity in 1969, the water diversions in 1975, the steam-electric generating station greater than 20 megawatts operating in 1974, the industrial waste disposal well sites in 1970, the irrigated areas in 1970 and the drained and protected areas in 1970. There are many areas where man can have a profound influence on natural water systems. Although they cannot be illustrated in map form, particularly on the scale of this map, the following can be considered as areas where man can have deleterious effects on the water environment. Although 90 per cent of Canada's population is concentrated within 150 miles of the international border, approximately 60 per cent of the nation's total runoff is carried by rivers which flow away from densely populated southern areas. Many schemes have been proposed for diverting water from these rivers to increase the water supply in the southern parts of the country. The few diversions constructed to date have been relatively small a
GEOSCAN ID295307