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TitleA three-dimensional bedrock hydrostratigraphic model of southern Ontario
LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorCarter, T R; Logan, C EORCID logo; Clark, J K; Russell, H A JORCID logo; Priebe, E H; Sun, S
SourceGeological Survey of Canada, Open File 8927, 2022, 58 pages, Open Access logo Open Access
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
PublisherGovernment of Ontario
Documentopen file
Mediaon-line; digital
File formatreadme
File formatpdf; docx; rtf
NTS40; 41A; 30; 31C; 31D
Lat/Long WENS -83.0000 -76.0000 45.0000 41.0000
Subjectshydrogeology; Nature and Environment; Science and Technology; general geology; hydrostratigraphic units; hydrochemistry; hydrologic properties; wells; oil; petroleum; modelling; aquifers; Appalachian Foreland Basin
Illustrationslocation maps; cross-sections; tables; stratigraphic charts; diagrams
ProgramOpen Geoscience
ProgramGroundwater Geoscience Archetypal Aquifers of Canada
Released2022 12 06
AbstractA hydrostratigraphic framework has been developed for southern Ontario consisting of 15 hydrostratigraphic units and 3 regional hydrochemical regimes. Using this framework, the 54 layer 3-D lithostratigraphic model has been converted into a 15 layer 3-D hydrostratigraphic model. Layers are expressed as either aquifer or aquitard based principally on hydrogeologic characteristics, in particular the permeability and the occurrence/absence of groundwater when intersected by a water well or petroleum well. Hydrostratigraphic aquifer units are sub-divided into up to three distinct hydrochemical regimes: brines (deep), brackish-saline sulphur water (intermediate), and fresh (shallow). The hydrostratigraphic unit assignment provides a standard nomenclature and definition for regional flow modelling of potable water and deeper fluids. Included in the model are: 1) 3-D hydrostratigraphic units, 2) 3-D hydrochemical fluid zones within aquifers, 3) 3-D representations of oil and natural gas reservoirs which form an integral part of the intermediate to deep groundwater regimes, 4) 3-D fluid level surfaces for deep Cambrian brines, for brines and fresh to sulphurous groundwater in the Guelph Aquifer, and the fresh to sulphurous groundwater of the Bass Islands Aquifer and Lucas-Dundee Aquifer, 5) inferred shallow karst, 6) base of fresh water, 7) Lockport Group TDS, and 8) the 3-D lithostratigraphy. The 3-D hydrostratigraphic model is derived from the lithostratigraphic layers of the published 3-D geological model. It is constructed using Leapfrog Works at 400 m grid scale and is distributed in a proprietary format with free viewer software as well as industry standard formats.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
A Three-dimensional model of bedrock layers and groundwater aquifers has been developed for a large region of southern Ontario. This model groups sedimentary bedrock into 15 layers based on composition and the presence or absence of groundwater. Within aquifer units the distribution of water types is mapped as it changes with depth from fresh to sulphur to salty. The model includes the location and depth of oil and gas reservoirs, static water levels, and other map layers for orientation. It is expected that this model will help provide a regional perspective in an accessible format for a wide range of users including the general public, educators, industry, and government.

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