|Licence||Please note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada
supersedes any previous licences.|
|Author||Pendakur, K; Dawson, J; Grandmont, K; Matthews, D; Stewart, A|
|Source||Climate risks and adaptation practices for the Canadian transportation sector 2016; by Palko, K G (ed.); Lemmen, D S (ed.); 2017 p. 26-64, https://doi.org/10.4095/330412 Open Access|
|Links||Online - En
|Publisher||Government of Canada|
|Related||This publication is contained in Climate risks and
adaptation practices for the Canadian transportation sector 2016 |
|Related||This publication is a translation of Les Territoires du
|Province||Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut|
|NTS||15; 16; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 105; 106; 107; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340;
|Lat/Long WENS||-141.0000 -56.0000 90.0000 60.0000|
|Subjects||Nature and Environment; Transport; Economics and Industry; surficial geology/geomorphology; hydrogeology; Health and Safety; climate; climate effects; climate, arctic; ice; snow; sea ice; sea level
changes; permafrost; ground ice; floods; meteorology; precipitation; temperature; landslides; slope failures; slope stability; coastal environment; Climate change; Climate change adaptation; Air transport; Aviation; Water transport; Rail transport;
Road transport; Road networks; Infrastructures; Natural hazards; Extreme weather; cumulative effects|
|Illustrations||tables; sketch maps; time series; photographs; block diagrams; schematic diagrams|
|Program||Climate Change Impacts and
|Program||Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Canada in a Changing Climate|
|Released||2017 01 01; 2019 07 15|
The Canadian North has experienced some of the most significant warming on the planet. From 1948 to 2014, the Arctic Tundra region warmed by 2°C, while the Arctic
Mountains and Fjords region of Nunavut experienced a temperature increase of 1.6°C. The greatest warming (2.6°C) occurred in the Mackenzie District. These changes have considerable impacts on the people, land, ecosystems, and
Permafrost degradation poses both immediate and future risks to northern transportation infrastructure. Warming temperatures have increased the vulnerability of roads, railways, and airport taxiways and runways to risks associated
with ground settlement, slope instability, and buckling. Continued warming will further degrade permafrost, with implications for transportation safety, system efficiency, community services, and maintenance budgets in the North.
Changes to the
regional climate have reduced the operating windows and load capacities of some winter roads in recent years, in some cases resulting in costly adjustments. Winter roads serve as a key seasonal component of some territories' transportation
infrastructure (particularly in the Northwest Territories) and are critical for community re-supply. While operating windows have always been variable from year to year, recent increases in surface temperature have shortened the operating season for
some winter roads. This has resulted in the need for alternative, and often more costly, methods of shipping, such as air transportation.
The climatic changes that are opening up northern marine waters to exploration and shipping are also making
these activities more difficult. Increasing temperatures have led to a rapid decrease in sea ice extent, and reduced volumes of multi-year sea ice. While these changes are slowly opening up waterways to new navigational routes, the increased mobility
of summer sea ice, as well as increased coastal erosion and storm surge flooding, present ongoing difficulties for shipping, exploration, and associated coastal infrastructure.
While many adaptation techniques can be used to maintain roads, rail,
and airport taxiways and runways on permafrost rich soil, some can be cost-prohibitive. Several practices rely on the availability of specialized equipment and materials, which can be expensive to transport to northern locations.
|Summary||(Plain Language Summary, not published)|
This report presents the current state of knowledge about climate risks to the Canadian transportation sector, and identifies existing or potential
adaptation practices. The report includes six regional chapters and one urban chapter which reflect the different climate change impacts, vulnerabilities and opportunities across Canada. Adaptation approaches are discussed and case studies highlight
adaptation actions and practices. A synthesis chapter brings together the report's key findings. Co-led by Transport Canada and Natural Resources Canada, the development of this report synthesized over 700 publications and involved 42 lead and
contributing authors, and over 228 expert reviewers.