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TitleReport to Natural Resources Canada Climate Change Adaptation - AP66 : transactional energy framework for net-zero energy communities
AuthorSaxena, S; Farag, H; Kim, H; Brookson, A; St. Hilaire, L
Source 2021, 40 pages Open Access logo Open Access
LinksOnline - En ligne
LinksSustainable Technologies Evaluation Program (STEP)
PublisherToronto and Region Conservation Authority
Mediadigital; on-line
RelatedThis publication is related to the following publications
File formatpdf
NTS30; 31; 32; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 52; 53; 54
Lat/Long WENS -95.2500 -74.2500 57.0000 41.5000
SubjectsScience and Technology; Economics and Industry; Nature and Environment; energy; Climate change; Adaptation measures and options; cumulative effects
Illustrationstime series; tables; graphs; schematic representations; bar graphs
ProgramClimate Change Impacts and Adaptation
ProgramClimate Change Impacts and Adaptation Climate Change Adaptation Program
Released2021 01 01
Climate change adaption within the energy sector is defined as a collection of strategies, tools, and actions to improve the sector's resilience to the impacts of climate change [1]. A reactionary adaptation strategy is to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions produced by the energy and transportation sectors by increasing the uptake of distributed energy resources (DERs) such as solar distributed generation, battery energy storage systems, electric vehicles, and smart thermostats. However, this strategy places excessive stress on the electric distribution system infrastructure and requires the upgrading of all residential distribution transformers, resulting in capital expenditure (CAPEX) that would exceed $51 B [2].
Clearly, such massive upgrades to the distribution system are not feasible and will slow the adoption of DERs, thereby continuing to expose the population to financial, economic, and social risks associated with climate change. As such, anticipatory adaptation strategies are needed to reduce the impact of these risks. To that end, this project investigates the impact of transactive energy frameworks (TEFs) on the load profile an all-electric, 8 home, residential community. A TEF is a combination of incentive-based control techniques to improve grid resiliency and efficiency [12]. The deployment of a TEF within a residential community is conceptualized as a peer to peer (P2P) energy trading marketplace, where homeowners may place energy bids for each of their owned DERs. Creating a residential energy marketplace has the potential to settle power mismatches and reduce peak load by coordinating the charging cycles of battery energy storage systems and electric vehicles to increase the self-consumption of local renewable energy. Further, the TEF is implemented using blockchain technology to automate the bidding, validation, and dispatching of individual DERs within the marketplace. The utilization of blockchain technology removes trust issues between market participants by using a shared distributed ledger that enables all transactions to be validated and audited in consensus by all participants.
Simulated experiments on the 8 home residential community are conducted on three case studies, including: P2P energy trading, congestion relief, as well as power outage prevention. The TEF-based P2P energy trading marketplace reduces a community summer peak load from 109.96 kW to 52.29 kW (reduction of 52%), while the local renewable energy utilization increases from 69% to 93%. The reduction of the peak load reduces the size of the upgrades needed to the distribution system, resulting in an average of $56.8M (or 31.6%) of CAPEX savings for a sample size of distribution utilities. Further savings are enabled with the second study of congestion relief by adding demand caps on the community load, which reduces the peak load to 41.71 kW and increases CAPEX savings to $102.5M (or 57.1%). Results for the third case study demonstrate the ability of BESSs to provide voltage support to the distribution grid to prevent sustained undervoltage events during brownouts, resulting in annual community payments of $1440.
Lastly, a real-world, blockchain-based TEF is implemented using Hyperledger Fabric and deployed to a microgrid in Vaughan, Ontario. The TEF facilitates a marketplace that enables the microgrid DERs to bid and trade for energy. Real work experiments show the ability of the TEF to automate the bidding and dispatch process of the DERs, as well as to respond to demand caps set by the utility to force zero grid consumption from the microgrid during times of congestion.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
This report provides an overview of blockchain-based TEFs by providing a brief review of energy markets, formulating bidding strategies for the DERs, and introducing the design architecture of the proposed system. Experimental results are presented from both simulations and real-world experiments. There is then a discussion of the potential barriers to adoption for TEFs and the benefits of the project.

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