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TitleLes déterminants de l'efficacité des instruments de politiques publiques : études de cas sur l'adaptation aux changements climatiques au Québec, au Canada atlantique et au Massachusetts
AuthorValois, P; Beaulieu, N; Nicolescu, E; Belloy, P; Sulewski, D; VanDeveer, S; Poisblaud, L
Source 2021, 171 pages Open Access logo Open Access
LinksOnline - En ligne (PDF, 5.88 MB)
LinksOuranos (Français - French)
LinksOuranos (English - Anglais)
PublisherObservatoire Québécois de l'adaptation aux changements climatiques (OQACC), Université Laval
Mediadigital; on-line
RelatedThis publication is a translation of Understanding the determinants of effective policy instruments: case studies of climate change adaptation in Québec, Atlantic Canada and Massachusetts
RelatedThis publication is related to the following publications
File formatpdf
ProvinceNova Scotia; New Brunswick; Quebec
NTS10; 11; 12; 20; 21; 22; 31G; 31H; 31I; 31J; 31P; 32A
AreaMassachusetts; Canada; United States of America
Lat/Long WENS -75.0000 -57.0000 52.0000 42.0000
Subjectssurficial geology/geomorphology; marine geology; Science and Technology; Nature and Environment; coastal management; Climate change; Climate change adaptation; Policy instruments; cumulative effects
Illustrationsphotographs; flow diagrams; sketch maps; tables
ProgramClimate Change Impacts and Adaptation
ProgramClimate Change Impacts and Adaptation Climate Change Adaptation Program
Released2021 06 01
Six case studies identified factors that motivate jurisdictions to develop specific policy instruments and others that facilitate their implementation and promote their positive outcomes. Three studies examined the mechanisms used by provinces or states to support municipalities in their climate change adaptation planning. They looked at the instruments used in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Massachusetts. Another study examined the environmental assessment of bank stabilization projects in the North Shore region of Québec. A fifth study examined the consideration of climate change adaptation in the Regional Land Use and Development Plan of the Montreal agglomeration. A sixth study looked at the Climate Ready Boston planning process. Results show that the effectiveness of public policy instruments depends on the motivation to implement them, as well as on a range of facilitating factors whose absence may constitute barriers. Motivating factors include anticipated benefits in terms of risk reduction and improved quality of life. Solutions that pursue both of these goals, such as greening, parks and conservation of natural environments, can motivate jurisdictions to act and can encourage buy-in from residents. Perceived social pressures, which may result from government requirements, expectations expressed in public consultations or previous commitments, also influence motivation. The effectiveness of a policy can be reduced by a lack of motivation of its targeted actors, or by barriers experienced by them. Governments use the results of scientific research in planning, stakeholder engagement and decision-making processes. They use them to choose the instruments to implement but also to motivate and facilitate those they seek to influence with their public policies. In the cases we studied, governments were able to advance climate change adaptation by combining different types of instruments, as well as by putting in place new measures to overcome the barriers they faced and to help the targeted actors overcome theirs. The different types of instruments that aim to influence targeted actors can have an effect on the variables in the conceptual framework that serves as the theoretical basis for this project: instruments that seek to inform about the benefits of a promoted behaviour, those that make the behaviour compulsory in order to gain approval, thus creating social pressure, and those that have a facilitating effect (e.g. by providing financial, human, organisational and information resources). The case studies highlighted challenges related to engaging the most vulnerable populations, coordination between adjacent municipalities, and the need to establish standards on what restrictions to put in place. Our results suggest that strategic planning tools for regional land use planning can foster synergy among different actors around long-term collective goals while taking climate change into account. Equity and environmental justice must also be considered in the objectives and measures put in place.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
This report uses six case studies to examine the factors that motivate jurisdictions to develop specific climate change adaptation policy instruments and identifies factors that lead to the success or failure of such policies. Case studies in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Massachusetts examine the mechanisms used by provinces or states to support municipalities in their adaptation planning. The report concludes by providing the most relevant indicators for policymakers to consider when assessing progress in their adaptation strategies.

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