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TitleRockburst in underground excavations: A review of mechanism, classification, and prediction methods
AuthorAskaripour, M; Saeidi, A; Rouleau, A; Mercier-Langevin, P
SourceUnderground Space vol. 7, issue 1, 2022 p. 1-31, Open Access logo Open Access
Alt SeriesNatural Resources Canada, Contribution Series 20210661
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
Subjectsgeophysics; structural geology; rockbursts
Illustrationsschematic models; tables; figures; plots
Released2022 01 10
AbstractTechnical challenges have always been part of underground mining activities, however, some of these challenges grow in complexity as mining occurs in deeper and deeper settings. One such challenge is rock mass stability and the risk of rockburst events. To overcome these challenges, and to limit the risks and impacts of events such as rockbursts, advanced solutions must be developed and best practices implemented. Rockbursts are common in underground mines and substantially threaten the safety of personnel and equipment, and can cause major disruptions in mine development and operations. Rockbursts consist of violent wall rock failures associated with high energy rock projections in response to the instantaneous stress release in rock mass under high strain conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a good understanding of the conditions and mechanisms leading to a rockburst, and to improve risk assessment methods. The capacity to properly estimate the risks of rockburst occurrence is essential in underground operations. However, a limited number of studies have examined and compared yet different empirical methods of rockburst. The current understanding of this important hazard in the mining industry is summarized in this paper to provide the necessary perspective or tools to best assess the risks of rockburst occurrence in deep mines. The various classifications of rockbursts and their mechanisms are discussed. The paper also reviews the current empirical methods of rockburst prediction, which are mostly dependent on geomechanical parameters of the rock such as uniaxial compressive strength of the rock, as well as its tensile strength and elasticity modulus. At the end of this paper, some current achievements and limitations of empirical methods are discussed.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
This contribution summarizes the main mechanisms that are responsible for sudden rock instabilities and projections (rockbursts) in underground excavations such as mine galleries. It also presents a review of how rockbursts are classified, and how they can be predicted.

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