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TitleEvolution of carbonatite magmas in the upper mantle and crust
AuthorYaxley, G M; Kjarsgaard, B AORCID logo; Jacques, A L
SourceElements: An International Magazine of Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Petrology vol. 17, issue 5, 2021 p. 315-320, Open Access logo Open Access
Alt SeriesNatural Resources Canada, Contribution Series 20210270
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
Subjectssurficial geology/geomorphology; carbonatites; mantle; partial melting; immiscibility, liquid; crystal fractionation; silicates
Illustrationsschematic diagrams; figures; ternary diagrams; images
Released2021 12 01
AbstractCarbonatites are the most silica-poor magmas known and are amongst Earth's most enigmatic igneous rocks. They crystallise to rocks dominated by the carbonate minerals calcite and dolomite. We review models for carbonatite petrogenesis, including direct partial melting of mantle lithologies, exsolution from silica-undersaturated alkali silicate melts, or direct fractionation of carbonated silicate melts to carbonate-rich residual melts. We also briefly discuss carbonatite-mantle wall-rock reactions and other processes at mid- to upper crustal depths, including fenitisation, overprinting by carbohydrothermal fluids, and reaction between carbonatite melt and crustal lithologies.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
A synopsis of experimental petrology studies on carbonatites and field studies and other observations, with respect to economic mineralization for critical metals.

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