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TitleGeochemical evidence for a magmatic contribution to the metal budget of the Windy Craggy Cu-Co(±Zn) volcanogenic massive-sulfide deposit, northwestern British Columbia
LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorLeybourne, M I; Peter, J MORCID logo; Schmidt, M A; Layton-Matthews, D; Voinot, A; Mathieu, L
SourceTargeted Geoscience Initiative 5: volcanic- and sediment-hosted massive-sulfide deposit genesis and exploration methods; by Peter, J MORCID logo (ed.); Gadd, M GORCID logo (ed.); Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 617, 2022 p. 287-312, Open Access logo Open Access
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
Mediaon-line; digital
RelatedThis publication is contained in Targeted Geoscience Initiative 5: volcanic- and sediment-hosted massive-sulfide deposit genesis and exploration methods
File formatpdf
ProvinceBritish Columbia
AreaWindy Craggy Mountain
Lat/Long WENS-137.7833 -137.7461 59.7375 59.7208
Subjectseconomic geology; geochemistry; tectonics; Science and Technology; Nature and Environment; Upper Triassic; mineral exploration; exploration guidelines; mineral deposits; volcanogenic deposits; sulphide deposits; metals; copper; cobalt; zinc; gold; ore mineral genesis; mineralization; ore controls; fluid dynamics; fluid inclusions; sulphides; pyrite; chalcopyrite; pyrrhotite; whole rock geochemistry; geochemical analyses; mass spectrometer analysis; trace element analyses; lithogeochemistry; host rocks; bedrock geology; lithology; igneous rocks; volcanic rocks; mafic volcanic rocks; basalts; andesites; mafic intrusive rocks; sedimentary rocks; argillites; structural features; faults; tectonic history; magmatism; hydrothermal systems; alteration; intrusions; dykes; sills; Windy Craggy Deposit; Tats Group; Alexander Terrane; Canadian Cordillera; Data processing; Phanerozoic; Mesozoic; Triassic
Illustrationslocation maps; geoscientific sketch maps; stratigraphic columns; tables; plots; ternary diagrams; histograms
ProgramTargeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-5) Volcanic and sedimentary systems - volcanogenic massive sulphide ore systems
Released2022 01 27; 2022 11 17
AbstractVolcanogenic massive-sulfide (VMS) deposits may have had metal contributions from magmatic degassing and leaching of footwall rocks. The Windy Craggy Cu-Co-Zn VMS deposit in northwestern British Columbia may include magmatic contributions, based on laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of fluid inclusions (enriched in Sb, Sn, and Bi) and lithogeochemistry. Sulfide-mineral trace-element abundances in the massive-sulfide orebody, underlying stockwork zone, gold zone, and altered and unaltered mafic rock and argillite were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. Elevated Au, W, As, Bi, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, Ag, Co, and Mo contents occur within the gold and/or stockwork zones. Increasing 'magmatic metals' with increasing Co/Ni values suggest direct magmatic contribution to the deposit. Covariation of Co with these so-called 'magmatic elements' indicates that it, too, may be of magmatic origin, sourced via fluids exsolved from a crystallizing magma; however, evidence from the composition of rocks and sulfide minerals from Windy Craggy and other VMS deposits suggests that there is probably no meaningful distinction between hydrothermal leaching and direct magmatic contributions and that most - if not all - fluids that form VMS deposits should be termed 'magmatic-hydrothermal'.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
The Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI) is a collaborative federal geoscience program that provides industry with the next generation of geoscience knowledge and innovative techniques to better detect buried mineral deposits, thereby reducing some of the risks of exploration. This contribution summarizes the results of a 5-year study of multiple mineral deposit types: polymetallic hyper-enriched black shale; sedimentary exhalative Pb-Zn; carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn, magnesite; fracture-controlled replacement Zn-Pb, rare-earth element-F-Ba; and volcanogenic massive sulfides. Studies employed field geology, combined with geochemical (lithogeochemistry, stable and radiogenic isotopes, fluid inclusions, and mineral chemistry) and geophysical (rock properties, magnetotelluric, and seismic) methods. Collectively, the research provides advanced genetic and exploration models for volcanic- and sedimentary-hosted base-metal deposits, together with new laboratory, geophysical, and field techniques.

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