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TitleRare-earth element content of carbonate minerals in sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits, southern Canadian Rocky Mountains
LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorSimandl, G J; D'Souza, R J; Paradis, SORCID logo; Spence, J
SourceTargeted Geoscience Initiative 5: volcanic- and sediment-hosted massive-sulfide deposit genesis and exploration methods; by Peter, J MORCID logo (ed.); Gadd, M GORCID logo (ed.); Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 617, 2022 p. 165-201, Open Access logo Open Access
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
Mediaon-line; digital
RelatedThis publication is contained in Targeted Geoscience Initiative 5: volcanic- and sediment-hosted massive-sulfide deposit genesis and exploration methods
File formatpdf
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta
NTS82F; 82G; 82J; 82K; 82N; 82O; 93I; 93J; 93K; 93N; 93O; 93P; 94A; 94B; 94C; 94F; 94G; 94H
AreaRocky Mountains
Lat/Long WENS-118.0000 -114.0000 52.0000 48.0000
Lat/Long WENS-126.0000 -120.0000 58.0000 54.0000
Subjectseconomic geology; tectonics; geochemistry; mineralogy; Science and Technology; Nature and Environment; mineral exploration; exploration methods; mineral deposits; Mississippi Valley deposits; sulphide deposits; sedimentary ore deposits; replacement deposits; base metals; zinc; lead; ore mineral genesis; mineralization; ore controls; structural controls; mass spectrometer analysis; geochemical analyses; geochemical anomalies; bedrock geology; lithology; sedimentary rocks; carbonates; dolostones; structural features; fractures; tectonic history; metamorphism; diagenesis; burial history; fluid migration; fluid dynamics; crystallization; recrystallization; metallogeny; Canadian Cordillera; Foreland Belt; Kootenay Arc; North American Craton; Munroe Deposit; Shag Deposit; Monarch Deposit; Kicking Horse Deposit; Coral Deposit; Robb Lake Deposit; Reeves MacDonald Deposit; Jersey Emerald Deposit; HB Deposit; Abbott-Wagner Deposit; Pend Oreille (Yellowhead) Deposit; Pend Oreille (Josephine) Deposit; Duncan Deposit; Phanerozoic; Paleozoic; Devonian; Ordovician; Cambrian
Illustrationslocation maps; geoscientific sketch maps; tables; photomicrographs; plots
ProgramTargeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-5) Volcanic and sedimentary systems - volcanogenic massive sulphide ore systems
Released2022 01 27; 2022 11 17
AbstractPaleozoic platform carbonate rocks of the Rocky Mountains host Mississippi Valley-type (MVT), magnesite, barite, and REE-barite-fluorite deposits. Farther west, platform carbonate rocks of the Kootenay Arc host MVT and fracture-controlled replacement (FCR) deposits. This is the first systematic LA-ICP-MS study of carbonates in MVT and FCR deposits. We investigated seven MVT deposits in the Rocky Mountains, and five MVT deposits in the Kootenay Arc. None of the post-Archean Australian shale (PAAS)-normalized REE profiles show light REE (LREE) depletion and strong negative Ce anomalies characteristic of modern seawater: some profiles are nearly flat; others show depletion in LREE similar to seawater but without negative Ce anomalies; others are middle REE enriched. Carbonates with a strong positive Eu anomaly precipitated from or interacted with different fluids than carbonates with flatter profiles without a strong positive Eu anomaly. REE signatures reflect crystallization conditions of primary carbonates, and crystallization and re-equilibration conditions of carbonates with ambient fluids during diagenesis, deep burial, and/or metamorphic recrystallization. Chemical evolution of fluids along their migration path, fluid-to-rock ratio, fluid acidity, redox, and temperature also influence REE profile shape, which helps establish genetic and timing constraints on studied deposits and improves knowledge of the metallogeny of the Kootenay Arc and Rocky Mountains.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
The Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI) is a collaborative federal geoscience program that provides industry with the next generation of geoscience knowledge and innovative techniques to better detect buried mineral deposits, thereby reducing some of the risks of exploration. This contribution summarizes the results of a 5-year study of multiple mineral deposit types: polymetallic hyper-enriched black shale; sedimentary exhalative Pb-Zn; carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn, magnesite; fracture-controlled replacement Zn-Pb, rare-earth element-F-Ba; and volcanogenic massive sulfides. Studies employed field geology, combined with geochemical (lithogeochemistry, stable and radiogenic isotopes, fluid inclusions, and mineral chemistry) and geophysical (rock properties, magnetotelluric, and seismic) methods. Collectively, the research provides advanced genetic and exploration models for volcanic- and sedimentary-hosted base-metal deposits, together with new laboratory, geophysical, and field techniques.

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