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TitleCarbonate-hosted deposits (Mississippi Valley-type, magnesite, and REE-F-Ba) of the southeastern Canadian Cordillera: a review and isotopic data comparison
LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorParadis, SORCID logo; Simandl, G J; Drage, N; D'Souza, R J; Kontak, D J; Waller, Z
SourceTargeted Geoscience Initiative 5: volcanic- and sediment-hosted massive-sulfide deposit genesis and exploration methods; by Peter, J MORCID logo (ed.); Gadd, M GORCID logo (ed.); Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 617, 2022 p. 39-87, Open Access logo Open Access
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
Mediaon-line; digital
RelatedThis publication is contained in Targeted Geoscience Initiative 5: volcanic- and sediment-hosted massive-sulfide deposit genesis and exploration methods
RelatedNRCan photo(s) in this publication
File formatpdf
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta
NTS82F; 82G; 82J; 82K; 82N; 82O
AreaRocky Mountains
Lat/Long WENS-118.0000 -114.0000 52.0000 48.0000
Subjectseconomic geology; igneous and metamorphic petrology; mineralogy; geochemistry; geochronology; Science and Technology; Nature and Environment; mineral exploration; exploration guidelines; mineral deposits; Mississippi Valley deposits; sedimentary ore deposits; base metals; lead; zinc; magnesite; fluorine; barium; ore mineral genesis; mineralization; ore controls; structural controls; continental margins; sedimentary facies; tectonic setting; plate margins; rifting; deformation; metamorphism; hydrothermal systems; geological history; host rocks; bedrock geology; lithology; sedimentary rocks; carbonates; dolostones; clastics; petrographic analyses; fluid inclusions; isotopic studies; oxygen isotopes; carbon isotopes; sulphur isotope ratios; strontium strontium ratios; lead isotope ratios; thermal analyses; fluid dynamics; paragenesis; replacement deposits; dolomites; sulphides; sulphate; pyrite; radiometric dating; paleomagnetic ages; Canadian Cordillera; Foreland Belt; Cathedral Escarpment; Rocky Mountain Trench; Purcell Anticlinorium; Kootenay Arc; Ancestral North America; Monarch Deposit; Kicking Horse Deposit; Shag Deposit; Hawk Creek Deposit; Boivin Deposit; Munroe Deposit; Alpine Deposit; Oldman Deposit; Mount Brussilof Deposit; Rock Canyon Creek Deposit; Cathedral Formation; Steven Formation; Eldon Formation; Waterfowl Formation; Palliser Formation; McKay Group; Cedared Formation; Burnais Formation; Rodinia; Pangea; Laramide Orogeny; Phanerozoic; Paleozoic; Devonian; Ordovician; Cambrian
Illustrationslocation maps; geoscientific sketch maps; stratigraphic charts; tables; photographs; photomicrographs; plots; geochronological charts
ProgramTargeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-5) Volcanic and sedimentary systems - volcanogenic massive sulphide ore systems
Released2022 01 27; 2022 11 17
AbstractThe Mississippi Valley-type, magnesite, and REE-F-Ba deposits in the southeastern Canadian Cordillera are in the weakly deformed/metamorphosed Paleozoic carbonate platform of the Rocky Mountains. Most are hosted in dolostones of the middle Cambrian Cathedral, upper Cambrian Jubilee, and Upper Devonian Palliser formations and spatially associated with hydrothermal dolomite. They occur along structurally controlled facies transitions between the shallow-water carbonate platform and deeper water basin rocks of the Paleozoic continental margin. Their location and morphology reflect episodic rifting along the Paleozoic margin. The carbonate protolith was replaced by fine-grained 'replacive dolomite' followed by several stages of coarser saccharoidal, sparry, and saddle dolomites and sulfides replacing dolostone and filling open spaces. The 87Sr/86Sr, delta-18O, delta-13C, and fluid-inclusion data are consistent with high-temperature fluids interacting with host rocks and show influence of adjacent or underlying siliciclastic rocks. The large range of delta-34S values of sulfides suggests that thermochemical sulfate reduction of seawater sulfate was the main sulfur-reducing process, but bacterial sulfate reduction also occurred locally. Lead isotopes suggest a mixing trend involving highly radiogenic and non-radiogenic end members. These observations are consistent with hydrothermal fluids replacing protoliths, precipitating sulfides, and possibly REE-F-Ba mineralization.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
The Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI) is a collaborative federal geoscience program that provides industry with the next generation of geoscience knowledge and innovative techniques to better detect buried mineral deposits, thereby reducing some of the risks of exploration. This contribution summarizes the results of a 5-year study of multiple mineral deposit types: polymetallic hyper-enriched black shale; sedimentary exhalative Pb-Zn; carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn, magnesite; fracture-controlled replacement Zn-Pb, rare-earth element-F-Ba; and volcanogenic massive sulfides. Studies employed field geology, combined with geochemical (lithogeochemistry, stable and radiogenic isotopes, fluid inclusions, and mineral chemistry) and geophysical (rock properties, magnetotelluric, and seismic) methods. Collectively, the research provides advanced genetic and exploration models for volcanic- and sedimentary-hosted base-metal deposits, together with new laboratory, geophysical, and field techniques.

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