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TitlePetrographic, fluid inclusion, and secondary ion mass spectrometry stable isotopic (O, S) study of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization in British Columbia and Alberta
LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorKontak, D J; Paradis, SORCID logo; Waller, Z; Fayek, M
SourceTargeted Geoscience Initiative 5: volcanic- and sediment-hosted massive-sulfide deposit genesis and exploration methods; by Peter, J MORCID logo (ed.); Gadd, M GORCID logo (ed.); Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 617, 2022 p. 203-245, Open Access logo Open Access
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
Mediaon-line; digital
RelatedThis publication is contained in Targeted Geoscience Initiative 5: volcanic- and sediment-hosted massive-sulfide deposit genesis and exploration methods
File formatpdf
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Northwest Territories
NTS75D; 75E; 75F; 82F; 82G; 82J; 82K; 82N; 82O; 83M; 84D; 84E; 84F; 84K; 84L; 84M; 84N; 84O; 84P; 85A; 85B; 85C; 85D; 85E; 85F; 85G; 85H; 93M; 93N; 93O; 93P; 94; 95A; 95B; 95H; 103P
AreaRocky Mountains
Lat/Long WENS-118.0000 -114.0000 52.0000 48.0000
Lat/Long WENS-130.0000 -110.0000 62.0000 55.0000
Subjectseconomic geology; igneous and metamorphic petrology; mineralogy; geochemistry; Science and Technology; Nature and Environment; mineral exploration; exploration methods; mineral deposits; Mississippi Valley deposits; sulphide deposits; sedimentary ore deposits; base metals; zinc; lead; ore mineral genesis; mineralization; ore controls; petrographic analyses; fluid inclusions; mass spectrometer analysis; isotopic studies; oxygen isotopes; sulphur isotope ratios; scanning electron microscope analyses; textural analyses; host rocks; geological history; thermal analyses; fluid dynamics; cementation; dolomites; sphalerite; calcite; carbonates; pyrite; sulphides; paragenesis; salinity; Canadian Cordillera; Rocky Mountain Fold-And-Thrust Belt; Kootenay Arc; Kootenay Terrane; North American Craton; Robb Lake Deposit; Mucho-McConnell Formation; Pine Point Deposit; Pine Point District; Kicking Horse Deposit; Monarch Deposit; Shag Deposit; Munroe Deposit; Oldman Deposit; Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin; Peace River Arch; Mastodon Deposit; O'Donnell Deposit; Dawson Oil Field; Great Slave Reef; Reeves MacDonald Deposit; Central Presqu'ile Barrier; Martin Hills Deposit; Steen River Deposit; Slavery Creek Deposit; Oak Gas Field; Jersey Emerald Deposit; Wigwam Deposit; Rose Deposit; Abbott-Wagner Deposit; HB Deposit
Illustrationslocation maps; geoscientific sketch maps; tables; plots; photomicrographs; geochronological charts; ternary diagrams; schematic diagrams
ProgramTargeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-5) Volcanic and sedimentary systems - volcanogenic massive sulphide ore systems
Released2022 01 27; 2022 11 17
AbstractA comprehensive study of Mississippi Valley-type base-metal deposits across the Canadian Cordillera was done to compare and contrast their features. Extensive dissolution of host rocks is followed by multiple generations of dolomite cements from early, low-temperature, fine-grained to coarser, higher temperature types that overlap with Zn-Pb sulfide minerals; late-stage calcite occludes residual porosity. Dolomite is generally chemically stoichiometric, but ore-stage types are often rich in Fe (<1.3 weight per cent FeO) with small sphalerite inclusions. Sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusions record ranges for homogenization temperatures (77-214°C) and fluid salinity (1-28 weight per cent equiv. NaCl±CaCl2). These data suggest fluid mixing with no single fluid type related to all sulfide mineralization. In situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) generated delta-18OVSMOW values for carbonate minerals (13-33 permille) reflect dolomite and calcite formation involving several fluids (seawater, basinal, meteoric) over a large temperature range at varying fluid-rock ratios. Sphalerite and pyrite SIMS delta-34SVCDT values vary (8-33 permille) but in single settings have small ranges (<2-3 permille) that suggest sulfur was reduced via thermochemical sulfate reduction from homogeneous sulfur reservoirs. Collectively, the data implicate several fluids in the mineralizing process and suggest mixing of a sulfur-poor, metal-bearing fluid with a metal-poor, sulfide-bearing fluid.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
The Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI) is a collaborative federal geoscience program that provides industry with the next generation of geoscience knowledge and innovative techniques to better detect buried mineral deposits, thereby reducing some of the risks of exploration. This contribution summarizes the results of a 5-year study of multiple mineral deposit types: polymetallic hyper-enriched black shale; sedimentary exhalative Pb-Zn; carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn, magnesite; fracture-controlled replacement Zn-Pb, rare-earth element-F-Ba; and volcanogenic massive sulfides. Studies employed field geology, combined with geochemical (lithogeochemistry, stable and radiogenic isotopes, fluid inclusions, and mineral chemistry) and geophysical (rock properties, magnetotelluric, and seismic) methods. Collectively, the research provides advanced genetic and exploration models for volcanic- and sedimentary-hosted base-metal deposits, together with new laboratory, geophysical, and field techniques.

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