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TitlePolycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Canadian environment: a review of sampling techniques, strategies and instrumentation
AuthorAhad, J M EORCID logo; Macdonald, R W; Parrott, J L; Yang, Z; Zhang, Y; Siddique, T; Kuznetsova, A; Rauert, C; Galarneau, E; Studabaker, W B; Evans, M; McMaster, M E; Shang, D
SourceEnvironmental Pollution vol. 266, 114988, 2020 p. 1-17, Open Access logo Open Access
Alt SeriesNatural Resources Canada, Contribution Series 20190341
PublisherElsevier Ltd.
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; html
Subjectsenvironmental geology; geochronology; Nature and Environment; Science and Technology; sampling techniques; in-field instrumentation; environmental studies; pollution; pollutants; sediments; peat; soils; snow; analytical methods; Methodology; Water; Air
Illustrationsphotographs; schematic diagrams; schematic representations; profiles; tables
ProgramEnvironmental Geoscience Environmental impact of diluted bitumen
Released2020 07 01
AbstractA wide variety of sampling techniques and strategies are needed to analyze polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and interpret their distributions in various environmental media (i.e., air, water, snow, soils, sediments, peat and biological material). In this review, we provide a summary of commonly employed sampling methods and strategies, as well as a discussion of routine and innovative approaches used to quantify and characterize PACs in frequently targeted environmental samples, with specific examples and applications in Canadian investigations. The pros and cons of different analytical techniques, including gas chromatography - flame ionization detection (GC-FID), GC low-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-LRMS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet, fluorescence or MS detection, GC high-resolution MS (GC-HRMS) and compound-specific stable (?13C, ?2H) and radiocarbon (?14C) isotope analysis are considered. Using as an example research carried out in Canada's Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), where alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur-containing dibenzothiophenes are frequently targeted, the need to move beyond the standard list of sixteen EPA priority PAHs and for adoption of an AOSR bitumen PAC reference standard are highlighted. A comprehensive review of sampling methods, strategies and analytical techniques used to quantify and characterize PACs in the Canadian environment.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
This review is part of a series of articles to be submitted the journal Environmental Pollution on the 'State of Knowledge Report on Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Canadian Environment'. In this paper, we provide a review of commonly employed sampling methods and instrumentation, as well as innovative approaches used to quantify and characterize PACs in frequently targeted environmental samples. While the discussion presented here is applicable to other regions, here we focus on examples and issues specific to Canadian investigations. The author list is comprised of experts who work in this field.

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