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TitleAutomated GCP detection SAR imagery I. Road intersections
AuthorIisaka, J; Sakurai-Amano, T
SourceProceedings of SPIE, the International Society of Optical Engineering vol. 2818, 1996 p. 147-155,
Alt SeriesNatural Resources Canada, Contribution Series 20190625
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
ProgramCanada Centre for Remote Sensing Divsion
Released1996 11 04
AbstractMethods for effective wetland monitoring are needed to understand how ecosystem services may be altered from past and present anthropogenic activities and recent climate change. The large extent of wetlands in many regions suggests remote sensing as an effective means for monitoring. Remote sensing approaches have shown good performance in local extent studies, but larger regional efforts have generally produced low accuracies for detailed classes. In this research we evaluate the potential of deep-learning Convolution Neural Networks (CNNs) for wetland classification using Landsat data to bog, fen, marsh, swamp, and water classes defined by the Canada Wetland Classification System (CWCS). The study area is the northern part of the forested region of Alberta where we had access to two reference data sources. We evaluated ResNet CNNs and developed a Multi-Size/Scale ResNet Ensemble (MSRE) approach that exhibited the best performance. For assessment, a spatial extension strategy was employed that separated regions for training and testing. Results were consistent between the two reference sources. The best overall accuracy for the CWCS classes was 62-68%. Compared to a pixel-based random forest implementation this was 5-7% higher depending on the accuracy measure considered. For a parameter-optimized spatial-based implementation this was 2-4% higher. For a reduced set of classes to water, wetland, and upland, overall accuracy was in the range of 86-87%. Assessment for sampling over the entire region instead of spatial extension improved the mean class accuracies (F1-score) by 9% for the CWCS classes and for the reduced three-class level by 6%. The overall accuracies were 69% and 90% for the CWCS and reduced classes respectively with region sampling. Results in this study show that detailed classification of wetland types with Landsat remains challenging, particularly for small wetlands. In addition, further investigation of deep-learning methods are needed to identify CNN configurations and sampling methods better suited to moderate spatial resolution imagery across a range of environments. © 2019 by the authors.

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