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TitleConstraining groundwater flow in Champlain Sea muds
DownloadDownload (whole publication)
LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorHinton, M JORCID logo; Alpay, SORCID logo
SourceSouthern Ontario groundwater project 2014-2019: summary report; by Russell, H A JORCID logo (ed.); Kjarsgaard, B AORCID logo (ed.); Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 8536, 2020 p. 203-215, Open Access logo Open Access
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
Documentopen file
Mediaon-line; digital
RelatedThis publication is contained in Southern Ontario groundwater project 2014-2019: summary report
File formatpdf
Lat/Long WENS -83.5000 -74.2500 47.0000 41.5000
Lat/Long WENS -76.1806 -76.1806 45.4219 45.3450
Subjectshydrogeology; surficial geology/geomorphology; geochemistry; geophysics; Nature and Environment; Science and Technology; groundwater; groundwater flow; flow rates; computer simulations; sediments; muds; silts; rhythmites; marine clays; clays; sands; gravels; glacial deposits; glacial landforms; eskers; modelling; chloride distribution; chloride geochemistry; concentration; boreholes; core samples; pore water samples; discharge rates; porosity; flow velocities; water geochemistry; groundwater geochemistry; mass spectrometer analysis; salinity; geophysical interpretations; seismic interpretations; hydraulic analyses; hydraulic conductivity; Champlain Sea Sediments; aquitards; solute transport; geochemical signatures; glaciomarine sediments; Phanerozoic; Cenozoic; Quaternary
Illustrationslocation maps; tables; seismic sections; profiles; lithologic sections
ProgramGroundwater Geoscience, Aquifer Assessment & support to mapping
Released2020 05 28
AbstractOne-dimensional groundwater transport modelling replicates the distribution of chloride ion concentrations measured in pore water from Champlain Sea muds, 2.8 km southeast of Kinburn, Ontario. The best fitting model simulations produce quantitative estimates of upward vertical specific discharge (q) between 0.84 and 0.97 mm/annum (mm/a) for the boundary conditions used. The average measured porosity of n = 0.55 allows calculation of a well-constrained range of average linear groundwater velocities, v = 1.5 to 1.8 mm/a. The ~100-m thickness of Champlain Sea muds at the Kinburn site is large relative to the solute transport distance. Consequently, up to 98% of the modelled initial Champlain Sea water signature in pore water was preserved at the measured peak concentration. Chloride concentrations decrease to fresh water values both above and below the position of the maximum concentration. This study demonstrates that transport modelling of such a complete concentration profile effectively constrains the range of groundwater flow rates in Champlain Sea muds.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
Collection of papers on work completed in the past five years as part of the southern Ontario Groundwater Project. This edited volume is a collection of currently unreported work.

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