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TitleA three-dimensional surficial geology model of southern Ontario: progress report
DownloadDownload (whole publication)
LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorLogan, C EORCID logo; Russell, H A JORCID logo; Bajc, A F; Burt, A; Mulligan, R P M; Sharpe, D RORCID logo
SourceSouthern Ontario groundwater project 2014-2019: summary report; by Russell, H A JORCID logo (ed.); Kjarsgaard, B AORCID logo (ed.); Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 8536, 2020 p. 49-64, Open Access logo Open Access
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
Documentopen file
Mediaon-line; digital
RelatedThis publication is contained in Southern Ontario groundwater project 2014-2019: summary report
File formatpdf
NTS30; 31C; 31D; 40; 41A; 41G; 41H
AreaNiagara Escarpment; Great Lakes; Lake Ontario; Lake Erie; Lake Huron; Georgian Bay; Bruce Peninsula; Lake Simcoe
Lat/Long WENS -83.5000 -76.0000 45.3333 41.5000
Subjectssurficial geology/geomorphology; stratigraphy; hydrogeology; geophysics; Nature and Environment; Science and Technology; modelling; models; stratigraphic analyses; sediments; postglacial deposits; organic deposits; glacial deposits; tills; muds; sands; software; boreholes; oil wells; gas wells; bathymetry; bedrock geology; bedrock topography; geophysical logging; core samples; geophysical interpretations; groundwater; groundwater flow; buried valleys; glacial history; Wisconsinian glacial stage; Illinoian glacial stage; Pleistocene; Holocene; Oak Ridges Moraine; Orangeville Moraine; Waterloo Moraine; Oro Moraine; Alliston Basin; Essex Clay Plain; Holland Marsh Tunnel Channel; Leapfrog® Works; Kempenfelt Bay Channel; Laurentian Trough; Digital elevation data; Quality control; Databases; Geographic data; Geographic information systems; glaciofluvial sediments; glaciolacustrine sediments; Data processing; Phanerozoic; Cenozoic; Quaternary
Illustrationsgeoscientific sketch maps; stratigraphic charts; schematic cross-sections; tables
ProgramGroundwater Geoscience Aquifer Assessment & support to mapping
Released2020 05 28
AbstractA 3-D model consisting of 7 surficial geology layers overlying bedrock for 66,870 km2 of southern Ontario has been constructed. Model development involved the assembly of a comprehensive subsurface database that includes archival water well and geotechnical material logs, cored boreholes, and stratigraphically interpreted geophysical data. Other geospatial constraints are derived from topographic Digital Elevation Models (DEM), bathymetric DEMs and depth soundings, a bedrock surface DEM, and seamless surficial geology mapping. Existing sub-regional (<10,000 km2) higher resolution 3-D models were used to support the model development. The surficial geological legend provided the basis for a simplified stratigraphic layer structure (from oldest to youngest): 1-Bedrock, 2-Lower Sediment, 3-Regional Till, 4-Glaciofluvial Sediment, 5-Upper Till, 6-Glaciolacustrine Mud, 7-Glaciolacustrine Sand, and 8-Recent/Organic Sediment. A preliminary model based on high-quality interpreted data was used along with surficial geological mapping and expert knowledge in a rules-based algorithm to help assign stratigraphic coding to the widespread, archival material log data. An iterative cycle of automated coding, manual coding, periodic interim model inspection and revision has led to this 3-D surficial geological model. This model supports regional-scale groundwater flow modelling and, along with a companion model of bedrock geology, will comprise the first complete 3-D model coverage of southern Ontario from the Precambrian basement to post-glacial sediment.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
Collection of papers on work completed in the past five years as part of the southern Ontario Groundwater Project. This edited volume is a collection of currently unreported work.

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