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TitleThree-dimensional geological modelling of the Paleozoic bedrock of southern Ontario: status update
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LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorCarter, T R; Brunton, F R; Clark, J K; Fortner, L; Logan, C EORCID logo; Russell, H A JORCID logo; Somers, M; Sutherland, L; Yeung, K
SourceSouthern Ontario groundwater project 2014-2019: summary report; by Russell, H A JORCID logo (ed.); Kjarsgaard, B AORCID logo (ed.); Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 8536, 2020 p. 7-21, Open Access logo Open Access
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
Documentopen file
Mediaon-line; digital
RelatedThis publication is contained in Southern Ontario groundwater project 2014-2019: summary report
File formatpdf
NTS30; 31C; 31D; 40; 41A; 41G; 41H
Lat/Long WENS -83.5000 -76.0000 45.3333 41.5000
Subjectsregional geology; stratigraphy; hydrogeology; geophysics; Nature and Environment; Science and Technology; modelling; models; lithostratigraphy; bedrock geology; lithology; sedimentary rocks; evaporites; salt; sandstones; shales; limestones; carbonates; dolostones; bedrock topography; software; boreholes; oil wells; gas wells; bathymetry; geophysical logging; core samples; unconformities; groundwater; cuestas; Leapfrog Works; Port Lambton Group; Kettle Point Formation; Hamilton Group; Marcellus Formation; Dundee Formation; Lucas Formation; Onondaga Formation; Amherstburg Formation; Sylvania Formation; Bois Blanc Formation; Bass Islands Formation; Salina Group; Guelph Formation; Lockport Group; Clinton Formation; Cataract Formation; Queenston Formation; Georgian Bay Formation; Blue Mountain Formation; Trenton Group; Black River Group; Shadow Lake Formation; Findlay Arch; Algonquin Arch; Frontenac Arch; Digital elevation data; Quality control; Geographic data; Geographic information systems; Phanerozoic; Paleozoic; Devonian; Silurian; Ordovician; Cambrian
Illustrationsgeoscientific sketch maps; location maps; stratigraphic charts; tables; 3-D models
ProgramGroundwater Geoscience Aquifer Assessment & support to mapping
Released2020 05 28
AbstractA regional 3-D lithostratigraphic model of the Paleozoic bedrock of southern Ontario was completed in
2019. The model encompasses the entire Phanerozoic succession of southern Ontario (110,000 km2), comprised of over 1,400 m of sedimentary strata straddling regional arches/forebulge zones separating the Appalachian Foreland Basin from the Michigan Structural Basin. This ambitious initiative provides an unprecedented regional 3-D perspective and digital framework and is amenable to numeric modelling of groundwater flow. Conversion to a 3-D hydrostratigraphic model is a future initiative. Model construction is guided by an updated regional lithostratigraphic chart, and utilizes Leapfrog Works - an implicit modelling application. There are 54 modelled Paleozoic bedrock layers representing 70 formations, plus the Precambrian basement, plus overlying unconsolidated sediments. Borehole records in Ontario's public petroleum well database ( are the principal data source, supplemented by Ontario Geological Survey (OGS) deep boreholes. A newly revised digital bedrock topography surface combined with revised subcrop geology and digitized 3-D surface polyline and point constraints are used to better align the modelled layers and their extrapolation to the subcrop surface. The modern topographic surface is integrated using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM data, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) lake bathymetry and Canadian Hydrographic data for smaller lakes. Model development is an iterative cycle of interim modelling, expert geological appraisal, and QA/QC editing of geological data using geophysical logs, drill cuttings, and core, supplemented by manual editing of model layers. From 2015 to 2018, project geologists and geological contract staff of the Oil, Gas and Salt Resources Library completed edits to 30,320 formation tops in a total of 7,490 wells, resulting in a revised dataset and improvements to the petroleum well database. The current and final model (iteration 7) provides a geologically robust representation of regional bedrock geology.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
Collection of papers on work completed in the past five years as part of the southern Ontario Groundwater Project. This edited volume is a collection of currently unreported work.

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