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TitleA three-dimensional geological model of the Paleozoic bedrock of southern Ontario
LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorCarter, T R; Brunton, F R; Clark, J K; Fortner, L; Freckelton, C; Logan, C EORCID logo; Russell, H A JORCID logo; Somers, M; Sutherland, L; Yeung, K H
SourceGeological Survey of Canada, Open File 8618, 2019, 45 pages, Open Access logo Open Access
Alt SeriesOntario Geological Survey, Groundwater Resources Study 19
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
PublisherGovernment of Ontario
Documentopen file
Mediaon-line; digital
RelatedThis publication is superceded by A three-dimensional geological model of the Paleozoic bedrock of southern Ontario
File formatreadme
File formatpdf (Adobe® Reader®); rtf; csv; dxf (Logiciel AutoCAD software)
NTS30; 31C/01; 31C/02; 31C/03; 31C/04; 31C/05; 31C/06; 31C/07; 31C/08; 31C/09; 31C/10; 31C/11; 31C/12; 31C/13; 31D; 31E/02; 31E/03; 31E/04; 31E/05; 40; 41A; 41B/01; 41B/08; 41B/09; 41B/16; 41G/01; 41G/08; 41H/01; 41H/02; 41H/03; 41H/04; 41H/05; 41H/06; 41H/07; 41H/08
AreaGreat Lakes
Lat/Long WENS -83.2500 -76.3333 45.3333 41.5000
Subjectsregional geology; stratigraphy; hydrogeology; Nature and Environment; Science and Technology; bedrock geology; basement geology; lithology; sedimentary rocks; sandstones; evaporites; salt; anhydrite; carbonates; limestones; dolostones; shales; lithostratigraphy; bedrock topography; groundwater regimes; groundwater resources; models; software; boreholes; oil wells; gas wells; stratigraphic analyses; stratigraphic nomenclature; St. Lawrence Lowlands; Leapfrog© Works; Ontario Petroleum Data System; Port Lambton Group; Kettle Point Formation; Hamilton Group; Marcellu Formation; Dundee Formation; Lucas Formation; Onondaga Formation; Detroit River Group; Columbus Formation; Amherstburg Formation; Sylvania Formation; Bois Blanc Formation; Springvale Formation; Oriskany Formation; Bass Islands Formation; Bertie Formation; Salina Group; Lockport Group; Guelph Formation; Eramosa Formation; Goat Island Member; Gasport Member; Clinton Group; DeCew Formation; Rochester Formation; Lion's Head Formation; Irondequoit Formation; Rockway Formation; Fossil Hill Formation; Reynales Formation; St. Edmund Formation; Wingfield Formation; Dyer Bay Formation; Neahga Formation; Medina Group; Thorold Formation; Grimsby Formation; Cabot Head Formation; Manitoulin Formation; Whirlpool Formation; Queenston Formation; Georgian Bay Formation; Blue Mountain Formation; Trenton Group; Cobourg Formation; Sherman Fall Formation; Kirkfield Formation; Black River Group; Coboconk Formation; Gull River Formation; Shadow Lake Formation; Niagara Escarpment; Algonquin Arch; Findlay Arch; Frontenac Arch; Appalachian Basin; Michigan Basin; Chatham Sag; Databases; Quality control; Phanerozoic; Cenozoic; Quaternary; Paleozoic; Devonian; Silurian; Ordovician; Cambrian
Illustrationsgeoscientific sketch maps; stratigraphic charts; models; location maps; flow diagrams; 3-D models; screen captures; tables
ProgramGroundwater Geoscience Aquifer Assessment & support to mapping
Released2019 11 26
AbstractA regional three-dimensional (3-D) lithostratigraphic model of the Paleozoic bedrock of southern Ontario has been completed. The model encompasses the entire Phanerozoic succession of southern Ontario (110 000 km2), consisting of over 1500 m of sedimentary strata straddling regional arch, or forebulge, zones separating the Appalachian foreland basin from the Michigan structural basin. This initiative provides an unprecedented regional 3-D perspective and digital framework based on an updated regional lithostratigraphic chart. Constructed using Leapfrog Works, an implicit modelling software application, the model format can readily support numeric groundwater-flow modelling.
Fifty-four Paleozoic bedrock layers representing 70 formations, as well as the Precambrian basement and overlying unconsolidated sediment, were modelled at a spatial resolution of 400 m. Borehole records in Ontario's public petroleum well database (Ontario Petroleum Data System (OPDS)) were the principal data source, supplemented by Ontario Geological Survey (OGS) deep boreholes, measured sections, control points and Michigan boreholes. A newly revised digital bedrock topography surface combined with revised subcrop geology and digitized 3-D surface polyline and point constraints were used to better align the modelled layers and their extrapolation to the subcrop surface. Model development was an iterative cycle of interim modelling, expert geological appraisal, and quality assurance and control (QA/QC) editing of geological data using geophysical logs, drill cuttings and core, supplemented by manual editing of model layers. The 3-D model provides a robust representation of regional bedrock geology.
A properly constructed borehole database and its supporting information is an essential requirement for construction of a 3-D model, but data errors, inconsistencies, data gaps, location errors, etc. can compromise the reliability of the model. From 2015 to 2018, project geologists and geological contract staff of the Oil, Gas and Salt Resources Library completed edits to 30 320 formation tops in a total of 7812 wells, resulting in a revised data set and permanent improvements to the petroleum well database. This report highlights the importance of QA/QC of well data, specifically formation top identification, and summarizes the data improvements made in support of the present 3-D model. No seismic data was available.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
Publication of a regional three-dimensional geological model of the Paleozoic bedrock of southern Ontario. The model encompasses the entire bedrock succession of southern Ontario (110,000 km2).

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