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TitleMineral systems with iron oxide copper-gold (Ag-Bi-Co-U-REE) and affiliated deposits: introduction and overview
AuthorCorriveau, LORCID logo; Mumin, A H; Potter, E GORCID logo
SourceMineral systems with iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) and affiliated deposits; Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 52, 2022 p. 1-26
Alt SeriesNatural Resources Canada, Contribution Series 20190067
PublisherGeological Association of Canada
File formatpdf
Lat/Long WENS-180.0000 180.0000 90.0000 -90.0000
Subjectsmetallic minerals; Science and Technology; mineralogy; Nature and Environment; economic geology; iron oxides; gold; copper; mineral deposits
Illustrationsdiagrams; location maps; tables
ProgramTargeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-5) Uranium ore systems
Released2022 07 01
AbstractIron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits host economic quantities of Cu ± Au and may also yield Ag, Co, Bi, Fe, Mo, Ni, PGE, Pb, REE, U, V, Zn and industrial minerals. Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits are sources of iron ore, and can in some cases contain REE ores. Affiliated deposits include, cobalt-bismuth variants of IOCG deposits rich in critical metals, iron and polymetallic skarn deposits, albitite-hosted uranium and Au-Co-U deposits, molybdenum-rhenium and iron sulphide-copper-graphite or copper-gold deposits. All these deposit types form within regional-scale iron oxide and alkali-calcic alteration systems. An individual ore system will not encompass this entire array of deposits, as system evolution and metal endowment depend on tectonics, volcanic activity, depth and geodynamic settings. The large resource potential for base, precious, REE, strategic, critical and nuclear metals, and the clustering of deposits in districts along extensive geological provinces, make IOCG and affiliated deposits attractive targets for modern exploration. This Special Paper of the Geological Association of Canada documents these ore systems globally, and more specifically their settings, alteration facies, breccia types and mineral chemistry. Examples discussed include the Olympic Copper-Gold Province and Cloncurry district (Australia), the Great Bear magmatic zone (Canada), the Central Andes (South America), the Bafq district (Iran), and the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt,Kangdian, eastern Tianshan and eastern Junggar districts (China). Complementary information is sourced from the southeast Missouri district (USA), Singhbhum Shear Zone (India), Norbotten district (Sweden), Bayan Obo deposit (China), and Central Mineral Belt, Kwyjibo district and Romanet Horst (Canada). The diagnostic alteration facies and breccias associated with these ore systems reflect regional chemical and textural modification of host rocks, resulting from progressive and efficient metasomatic fluid-rock reactions across very steep physicochemical gradients sustained by heat ingress and the ascent and evolution of large hypersaline fluid plumes. Field examples and processing of large lithochemical and geophysical databases illustrate the footprints of these ore systems and enable the development of new petrological mapping protocols, discriminant diagrams and lithogeochemical tools for their
characterization. By documenting alteration facies, paragenetic sequences, mineral chemistry, structural controls, and geophysical and geochemical signatures, and framing them into ore genetic models and deposit classes, the examples provide effective vectors to mineralization and address critical issues in exploring for these deposits worldwide.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
This scientific paper is a chapter for the Short course Note 21 volume of the Geological Association of Canada untitled Iron oxide copper-gold (Ag-Bi-Co-U-REE) and affiliated deposits. The paper reviews some of the main outcome of the Targeted Geoscience Initiative 5, project 1. Uranium systems, activity 2.1 Metal pathways and traps in polymetallic (U +/- Fe, Cu, Au, REE) metasomatic ore systems. The first part provides an overview on the variety of deposit types within these giant ore systems It synthesizes how alteration facies evolve as the systems build-up and how they provide a record of fluid flow paths from sources to deposits. The paper then addresses the need for synergies to optimize discoveries of IOCG and affiliated deposits, the time it takes between first discoveries and the development of new mining districts, the Australian successes, the social benefits and finally the prospective districts in Canada.

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