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TitleFluid inclusion LA-ICP-MS and whole rock geochemical investigation of possible magmatic contributions to the giant Windy Craggy Besshi-type VMS deposit
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LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorSchmidt, M A; Leybourne, M I; Peter, J MORCID logo; Petts, DORCID logo; Layton-Matthews, D
SourceTargeted Geoscience Initiative: 2018 report of activities; by Rogers, N (ed.); Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 8549, 2019 p. 189-204, Open Access logo Open Access
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
Documentopen file
Mediaon-line; digital
RelatedThis publication is contained in Targeted Geoscience Initiative: 2018 report of activities
File formatpdf
ProvinceBritish Columbia
AreaWindy Craggy Mountain
Lat/Long WENS-137.7833 -137.7461 59.7375 59.7208
Subjectseconomic geology; geochemistry; tectonics; mineral deposits; base metals; copper; cobalt; gold; sulphide deposits; volcanogenic deposits; mineral exploration; ore mineral genesis; mineralization; ore controls; fluid dynamics; fluid inclusions; salinity; whole rock analyses; bulk composition; geochemical analyses; mass spectrometer analysis; trace element analyses; major element analyses; total dissolved solids; host rocks; bedrock geology; lithology; igneous rocks; volcanic rocks; mafic volcanic rocks; basalts; andesites; sedimentary rocks; argillites; structural features; faults; tectonic history; magmatism; hydrothermal systems; alteration; Upper Triassic; analytical methods; isotopic studies; lead isotope ratios; Windy Craggy Deposit; Tats Volcanic Complex; Alexander Terrane; Canadian Cordillera; Saint Elias Subterrane; Admiralty Subterrane; Craig Subterrane; Methodology; Phanerozoic; Mesozoic; Triassic
Illustrationsgeoscientific sketch maps; tables; histograms; geochemical plots; plots
ProgramTargeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-5) Knowledge Management Coordination
ProgramTargeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-5) Volcanogenic massive sulphide ore systems - base metal sources and processes
Released2019 03 01
AbstractThe world-class Windy Craggy Cu-Co-Au deposit, northwestern British Columbia, is investigated to assess potential magmatic contributions to mineralizing fluids in volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits. Windy Craggy is of particular interest for two reasons: 1) its atypically large size and high-grade; and 2) the observation of fluid inclusions with anomalously high salinities. The deposit has recorded fluids with salinities up to 17 weight % equivalent NaCl (most 6-16 weight % equivalent). The Ca/Na values in fluid inclusions determined by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are greater than seawater and similar to values from other mafic-dominated VMS systems. The fluid inclusions have variable metal and metalloid concentrations, with positive correlations between Cu, Mn, Zn, Sb, Sn and Bi. Also analyzed are Windy Craggy host lithologies, including footwall argillites, relatively fresh to highly altered footwall mafic volcanic rocks and stringer and massive sulphides. These inclusions show similar trends and overlap the host rocks in Fe versus Mn and Cu versus Zn, but show clear excesses over host rocks in antimony, tin, bismuth and similar elements that are commonly ascribed as indicative of magmatic input. We suggest that these excess values strongly point to direct magmatic contributions to the Windy Craggy ore-forming fluids, as opposed to simply reflecting leaching of metals from the footwall sedimentary and igneous rocks.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
The Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI) is directed towards providing next generation knowledge and methods to facilitate more effective targeting of buried mineral deposits. The program aims to enhance the effectiveness of exploration for Canada's major mineral systems by resolving foundational geoscience problems that constrain the geological processes responsible for the liberation metals from their source region, transportation of these ore metals and control their eventual deposition. TGI supports projects on gold, Ni-Cr-PGE, porphyry-style mineralization, uranium and volcanic- and sedimentary-hosted base metal mineralization ore systems, with each project divided into subprojects focused on resolving specific knowledge gaps by integrating data and studies from multiple sites across Canada. Herein, we present interim results and interpretations from a selection of the research activities currently being conducted under the auspices of TGI.

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