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TitleThe importance of solar-terrestrial physics for Canada
AuthorBoteler, D HORCID logo
SourceSCOSTEP 14th quadrennial solar-terrestrial physics symposium, presentations accoording to program; 2018 p. 1-21 Open Access logo Open Access
LinksOnline - En ligne (presentation)
Alt SeriesNatural Resources Canada, Contribution Series 20180360
MeetingSCOSTEP 14th quadrennial solar-terrestrial physics symposium; Toronto; CA; July 9-13, 2018
DocumentWeb site
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf (Adobe® Reader®)
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut; Canada
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectsgeophysics; extraterrestrial geology; Health and Safety; solar variations; magnetic disturbances
ProgramPublic Safety Geoscience Northern Canada Geohazards Project
Released2018 07 09
AbstractSolar-terrestrial (space weather) phenomena, in the form of the aurora borealis (northern lights) have always been part of the Canadian experience. However, in modern times, we have come to realise how these phenomena can affect the different technological systems on which we rely. HF radio opened up communication links to remote communities, except when the ionosphere was disrupted by space weather disturbances, and such disturbances are now a problem for commercial aircraft using trans-polar routes. As long distance communications shifted to using satellites, Telesat¿s Anik series of satellites provided phone and television links across the country, but suffered a major blow when energetic electrons damaged the attitude control circuitry for Anik-E2; after heroic efforts to implement an alternative control system the satellite was brought back into operation 5 months later. On the ground, the expanding power network was vulnerable to the extra currents created during geomagnetic disturbances and on March 13, 1989 a major magnetic storm caused widespread effects including the blackout of the Hydro-Québec power system. Canadian operators of aeromagnetic surveys and directional drilling have also had to cope with geomagnetic disturbances. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are another technology affected by ionospheric disturbances and a number of correction services have been developed including the Canadian Coast Guard¿s DGPS service for maritime users. In parallel with the increasing engineering requirements to design or manage systems in Canada that are affected by space weather, the solar-terrestrial physics behind space weather phenomena has been a particular focus of Canadian scientists who have made great contributions in this area. The same high latitude location that makes Canada more exposed to space weather hazards also makes it a prime location for solar-terrestrial physics observations and the country is now a giant array of solar-terrestrial physics research instruments. The challenge for the future is to use the new solar-terrestrial physics knowledge being generated to help protect Canadian infrastructure from future extreme space weather events.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
Space weather refers to the dynamic conditions on the Sun and in the space environment, in particular, in the near-Earth environment, that can affect critical infrastructure. NRCan operates the Canadian Space Weather Forecast Centre and conducts research into space weather effects on power systems, pipelines, radio communications and GNSS positioning to help Canadian industry understand and mitigate the effects of space weather. This presentation describes how Canada has dealt with space weather. This starts with ionospheric effects on HF radio communication and the experience with satellites starting with the Allouette and ISIS missions and leading to the Telesat Anik series. The description of effects on ground systems includes power and pipelines. Surveying and navigation systems have also been affected; including ionospheric effects on GNSS positioning. As a general trend: as systems become more sophisticated they become more vulnerable to space weather.

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