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Title3-dimensional mapping of Quaternary deposits in the southern part of the County of Simcoe, Southern Ontario
DownloadDownload (whole publication)
AuthorBajc, A F; Mulligan, R P M; Rainsford, D R B; Pugin, A J -M; Knight, R D; Crow, H L
SourceRegional-scale groundwater geoscience in southern Ontario: an Ontario Geological Survey, Geological Survey of Canada, and Conservation Ontario geoscientists open house; by Russell, H A J; Ford, D; Priebe, E H; Holysh, S; Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 8363, 2018 p. 1,
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
MeetingRegional-Scale Groundwater Geoscience in Southern Ontario: Open House; Guelph; CA; February 28 - March 1, 2018
Documentopen file
Mediaon-line; digital
RelatedThis publication is contained in Russell, H A J; Ford, D; Priebe, E H; Holysh, S; (2018). Regional-scale groundwater geoscience in southern Ontario: an Ontario Geological Survey, Geological Survey of Canada, and Conservation Ontario geoscientists open house, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 8363
File formatpdf
NTS31D/05; 31D/11; 31D/12; 31D/13; 31D/14; 41A/07; 41A/08; 41A/09; 41A/10; 41A/16
AreaSimcoe County; Greater Golden Horseshoe
Lat/Long WENS -80.7500 -79.0000 45.0000 44.2500
Subjectssurficial geology/geomorphology; hydrogeology; environmental geology; sedimentology; geophysics; geochemistry; stratigraphy; mapping techniques; modelling; groundwater resources; resource management; land use; surface waters; overburden thickness; bedrock topography; chronostratigraphy; postglacial deposits; glacial deposits; moraines; tills; Wisconsinian glacial stage; Sangamonian interglacial stage; Illinoian glacial stage; depositional environment; glacial history; glaciation; deglaciation; Laurentian Trough; Newmarket Till; Oak Ridges Moraine; Scarborough-Thorncliffe Formation; 3-D mapping; resource protection; resource remediation; policy development; source water protection; Phanerozoic; Cenozoic; Quaternary
Natural Resources Canada Library - Ottawa (Earth Sciences)
ProgramAquifer Assessment & support to mapping, Groundwater Geoscience
Released2018 02 16
AbstractA 3-dimensional (3-D) mapping investigation of Quaternary deposits in the southern part of the County of Simcoe is one of several 3-D mapping projects currently being undertaken as part of the Ontario Geological Survey's groundwater initiative within the Greater Golden Horseshoe area of southern Ontario. Following completion of these projects, a significant proportion of the most densely populated and fastest growing region of the country will be modelled in 3-dimensions, laying the foundation for regional syntheses of subsurface geology.
The objective of this project is to develop an interactive 3-D model of Quaternary geology that can: 1) aid in studies involving groundwater extraction, protection and remediation; 2) assist with the development of policies surrounding land use and nutrient management; and 3) help to further understand the interaction between surface and ground waters. A better understanding of the geometry and inherent properties of the Quaternary sediments that overlie bedrock will assist with the development of revised source water protection plans and with the development of a geoscience-based management plan for the groundwater resource.
Geoscience data collection was initiated in 2010 and consisted of detailed Quaternary mapping and sedimentological studies of the shallow subsurface, continuous coring to bedrock at 25 locations and a variety of geophysical surveys including: ground gravity, airborne time-domain electromagnetics, downhole geophysical logging and seismic reflection. Supplementary grain size, carbonate, heavy mineral and geochemical analyses enabled an improved interpretation of the subsurface stratigraphy.
The information gained from this work resulted in a refined understanding of drift thickness and bedrock topography for the Laurentian trough area as well as the identification of 6 regionally significant chronostratigraphic units further subdivided into 15 layers. The main elements of the model, from youngest to oldest, include: 1) postglacial valley-fill deposits; 2) Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM) and equivalent deposits; 3) Newmarket Till; 4) Scarborough-Thorncliffe Formation equivalents; 5) non-glacial (Sangamon- Middle Wisconsin) deposits and 6) Illinoian and possibly older glacial deposits. Advancements in the understanding of the regional-scale architecture, contact relationships and depositional settings of these elements has allowed for an improved knowledge of the Quaternary history of the region. Notable observations include the identification of a widespread, non-glacial unit in the deep subsurface that likely spans the Sangamon to Middle Wisconsin time interval and the recognition of significant topographic relief of the Newmarket Till, extending from drumlinized uplands into broad valleys previously interpreted as tunnel valleys produced by the catastrophic release of subglacial meltwater. A protracted evolution for these valleys is currently being proposed. The character of groundwater flow within valley settings is more complex than observed in valleys underlying the ORM to the south. In Southern Simcoe County, the valleys are largely infilled with fine-grained units and upward hydraulic gradients commonly inhibit interaction of shallow with deep groundwater flow systems.