|Abstract||Interoperability is an essential requirement in complex digital environments where multiple geographical information sources must work|
together. For example, an online hotel booking system might
require a mapping component to work with payment and reservation systems,
and the mapping component itself might access a variety of online sources to contextualize the location, such as nearby tourist attractions,
restaurants, or other
amenities. Often these components are distributed geographically, are heterogeneous in their deployed technologies,
data structures, and data content, and are managed autonomously by distinct agents with diverse goals, policies, rules, and
These differences must be overcome in order for the systems to work together cohesively and become interoperable.