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TitleLinking subglacial meltwater through the eastern Great Lakes, Ontario and New York (at the time of the Atlantic Heinrich 1 event) with a meltwater flood in the Gulf of Mexico about 13.5 ka (16.2 cal ka)
LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorLewis, C F MORCID logo; Todd, B JORCID logo
SourceGeological Survey of Canada, Open File 8181, 2017, 1 sheet, Open Access logo Open Access
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
Documentopen file
Mediaon-line; digital
File formatpdf
ProvinceOffshore region; Ontario; Quebec
NTS30; 31; 40; 41
AreaGreat Lakes; Lake Ontario; Lake Erie; Long Point; Lake Huron; Gulf of Mexico; Mississippi River; Illinois River; Wabash River; Ohio River; Ottawa; Montreal; New York State; Finger Lakes; Seneca Lake; Cayuga Lake; Michigan; Grand River; Illinois; Havana; United States of America
Lat/Long WENS -94.0000 -72.0000 46.0000 26.0000
Subjectssurficial geology/geomorphology; marine geology; geophysics; geochronology; paleontology; glacial history; glaciation; Wisconsinian glacial stage; postglacial evolution; glacial lakes; meltwater channels; flow systems; ice sheets; ice movement directions; erosion; lakes; glacial deposits; glaciolacustrine deposits; glaciomarine deposits; glacial features; tills; till ridges; drumlins; lacustrine deposits; geophysical surveys; seismic surveys, lake; seismic reflection surveys; bathymetry; seismic profiles; boreholes; fossils; pollen; microfossils; radiometric dating; radiocarbon dating; oxygen isotopes; Laurentide Ice Sheet; Heinrich Event 1; Rochester Basin; Norfolk Moraine; Pennsylvania Channel; Glacial Lake Maumee; Glacial Lake Arkona; Imlay Channel; Kennett braided channel belt; Foraminifera; Glacial Lake Ypsilanti; Data processing; Phanerozoic; Cenozoic; Quaternary
Illustrationslocation maps; sketch maps; seismic profiles; spectra; graphs; schematic profiles; geophysical images; photographs; biostratigraphic charts
ProgramGroundwater Geoscience Aquifer Assessment & support to mapping
Released2017 03 21
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
The events and flows described in this Open File fit a scenario in which Laurentide Ice Sheet instability, associated with the H1 event of iceberg discharge to the North Atlantic Ocean, facilitated regional subglacial meltwater flows, first southward, then west-southwestward, leading to rapid transport of meltwater through the eastern Great Lake basins, then southward via the Mississippi River valley to the Gulf of Mexico about 13.6-13.4 (16.4-16.1 cal) ka. The meltwater flows discharged to the Gulf of Mexico where they have been detected by highly negative delta-18O composition of foraminiferal tests.

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