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TitleExamination of the relationship between riometer-derived absorption and the integral proton flux in the context of modelling polar cap absorption
AuthorFiori, R A D; Danskin, D W
SourceSpace Weather vol. 14, 2016 p. 1032-1052,
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20160136
PublisherAmerican Geophysical Union
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
AreaCanada; Russian Federation
Lat/Long WENS-180.0000 -1.0000 90.0000 40.0000
Subjectsgeophysics; ionosphere; ionospheric currents; magnetic field; magnetic disturbances; magnetic field intensity; latitude variations; riometers; protons; geomagnetic field; polar cap absorption
Illustrationslocation maps; tables; graphs; plots
ProgramNorthern Canada Geohazards Project, Public Safety Geoscience
AbstractEnergetic protons can penetrate into the ionosphere increasing ionization in the D region causing polar cap absorption that may potentially block high-frequency radio communications for transpolar flights. The protons are guided by the geomagnetic field into the high-latitude polar cap region. Riometers monitor variations in ionospheric absorption by observing the level of background cosmic radio noise. Current polar cap absorption modeling techniques are based on the linear relationship between absorption and the square root of the integral proton flux, which has previously only been demonstrated using data from a single high-latitude polar station. The proportionality constant describing this relationship is evaluated for two different polar cap absorption events occurring 7 - 11 March 2012 and 23 January 2012 to 1 February 2012. Examination of the proportionality constant using data from riometers distributed between 60° and 90° magnetic latitude reveals a previously unreported latitudinal dependence for data at magnetic latitudes of <=66.8° on the dayside and <=70.8° on the nightside. Incorporating the latitudinal dependence into the current D Region Absorption Prediction absorption model improves the agreement between measurement-derived and modeled parameters by increasing the correlation coefficient between data sets, reducing the root-mean-square error, and reducing the bias.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
Space weather refers to the dynamic conditions on the Sun and in the space environment, in particular, in the near-Earth environment, that can affect critical infrastructure. NRCan operates the Canadian Space Weather Forecast Centre and conducts research into space weather effects on power systems, pipelines, radio communications and GNSS positioning to help Canadian industry understand and mitigate the effects of space weather. Riometer instruments are powerful tools for assessing radio propagation conditions that change as a result of absorption in the ionosphere. This paper examines current absorption mapping techniques and makes recommendations for improvement.