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TitleTargeted Geoscience Initiative 4: Contributions to the understanding of volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit genesis and exploration methods development
LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorPeter, J MORCID logo (ed.); Mercier-Langevin, P (ed.)
SourceGeological Survey of Canada, Open File 7853, 2015, 214 pages, Open Access logo Open Access
LinksCanadian Database of Geochemical Surveys, downloadable files
LinksBanque de données de levés géochimiques du Canada, fichiers téléchargeables
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
Documentopen file
Mediaon-line; digital
RelatedThis publication contains the following publications
File formatpdf
ProvinceNunavut; Northwest Territories; New Brunswick; Manitoba; Quebec; Newfoundland and Labrador
NTS75I; 75J; 75K; 75L; 75M; 75N; 75O; 75P; 76; 85I; 85J; 85O; 85P; 86A; 86B; 86G; 86H; 86I/01; 86I/02; 86I/03; 86I/04; 86I/05; 86I/06; 86I/07; 86I/08; 86I/09; 86I/10; 86I/11; 86I/14; 86I/15; 86I/16; 86P/01; 86P/02; 86P/07; 86P/08; 86P/09; 86P/16; 21O/01; 21O/02; 21O/03; 21O/06; 21O/07; 21O/08; 21O/09; 21O/10; 21O/11; 21P/04; 21P/05; 21P/12; 63K/16; 32G/09; 32G/10; 32G/15; 32G/16; 12A/10; 12H/16
AreaIzok Lake; Great Slave Lake; Halfmile Lake; Bathurst; Grand Falls; Nepisiguit River; Snow Lake; Lalor; Chibougamau; Red Indian Lake; Baie Verte Peninsula
Lat/Long WENS-116.0000 -104.0000 68.0000 62.0000
Lat/Long WENS -66.5000 -65.7500 47.7500 47.1333
Lat/Long WENS-102.0000 -98.0000 56.0000 54.0000
Lat/Long WENS -75.0000 -74.0000 50.0000 49.5000
Lat/Long WENS -56.5833 -56.5833 48.6667 48.5000
Lat/Long WENS -56.0217 -56.0217 49.9317 49.8658
Subjectseconomic geology; geophysics; metallic minerals; geochemistry; surficial geology/geomorphology; stratigraphy; structural geology; igneous and metamorphic petrology; mineralogy; Archean; volcanogenic deposits; sulphide deposits; alteration; metamorphism; mineral assemblages; mineralization; exploration guidelines; volcanic rocks; mineral deposits; gold; remote sensing; satellite imagery; hydrothermal alteration; analytical methods; isotopes; oxygen isotopes; sulphur isotope ratios; mass spectrometer analysis; zinc; copper; lead; silver; petrography; element distribution; trace element distribution; trace element analyses; trace elements; mineral occurrences; exploration methods; mineral exploration; drift prospecting; drift geochemistry; tills; till geochemistry; indicator elements; glacial deposits; glacial landforms; glacial features; glacial history; sediment transport; sampling methods; sampling techniques; geochemical analyses; pebble lithology; sulphides; spectrometric analyses; x-ray fluorescence; x-ray fluorescence analyses; densities; magnetic susceptibility; geophysical interpretations; precious metals; deformation; igneous rocks; paragenesis; geochemical interpretations; metallogeny; greenschist facies; chlorite; sericite; epidote; chloritoid; tectonic setting; hydrothermal deposits; lithology; rhyolites; dacites; andesites; basalts; gabbros; porphyries; trace element geochemistry; major element geochemistry; barite; sphalerite; pyrite; chalcopyrite; bornite; tetrahedrite; tennantite; stromeyerite; galena; facies; stratiform deposits; lead isotope ratios; stratigraphic analyses; stratigraphic correlations; Bathurst Mining Camp; Noranda Camp; Abitibi Greenstone Belt; Snow Lake Camp; Flin Flon Greenstone Belt; Lalor Deposit; Abitibi greenstone belt; Lemoine deposit; Waconichi Formation; Lemoine Member; Dunnage Zone; Red Indian Line; Lemarchant volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit; Tally Pond belt; Ming Mine; Pacquet Harbour Group; Precambrian; Paleozoic; Ordovician; Cenozoic; Quaternary; Proterozoic; Cambrian
Illustrationslocation maps; plots; photographs; histograms; cross-sections; photomicrographs; tables; ternary diagrams; images; schematic diagrams; flow charts
ProgramTargeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-4) Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Ore Systems
Released2015 06 11
AbstractResearch on topical aspects of the genesis of, and exploration for, volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits was formulated and carried out under the auspices of the Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Ore System of the Targeted Geoscience Initiative 4 Program. Research activities were focussed on addressing two main themes: 1) development of innovative, new, and unconventional detection and vectoring methodologies for VMS exploration; these studies were conducted at the Izok Lake deposit, Nunavut, and regionally throughout the Bathurst Mining Camp, northern New Brunswick, as well as at numerous VMS deposits and prospects regionally throughout the Slave Province, Nunavut and Northwest Territories; and 2) understand the controls on precious metal (gold, silver) endowment or enrichment in VMS deposits. These studies were conducted at several deposits: Lalor Mine, Manitoba; Lemarchant deposit, Newfoundland; Ming Mine, Newfoundland; and the Lemoine deposit, Quebec. Detection and development of vectoring methods focussed on the application of optical reflectance spectrometry (airborne, ground, laboratory), oxygen isotope geochemistry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric analysis of volatile elements, multiple sulphur isotope geochemistry, till geochemistry and indicator minerals, and integration of rock properties and geophysics. Each of these research activities produced results that influence exploration strategies for VMS deposits in Canada and elsewhere. Studies focussed on determining the controls on precious metal endowment or enrichment in VMS deposits employed geology, volcanology/volcanic architectural analysis, lithogeochemistry, chemostratigraphy, geodynamic setting analysis, geochronology, hydrothermal alteration systematics, petrography, mineralogy and mineral chemistry (mineralization, alteration, host rock), oxygen isotope geochemistry, sulphur isotope geochemistry, lead isotope geochemistry, and metallogenic considerations. Collectively these studies demonstrate that in all cases, gold enrichment was primary (not late/secondary; i.e., seafloor and aerial weathering, overprinted unrelated mineralizing systems) and was the result of one or more of the following processes: 1) magmatic input, as evidenced by the presence of complex mineral assemblages that include sulphosalts and native elements, anomalous trace element signatures (e.g. epithermal suite: Au-As-Sb-Ag- Hg; felsic magma-associated: Bi-W-Te-In-Sn); and 2) boiling in a shallow-water setting. Only minimal remobilization of gold occurred in deposits in response to greenschist- and amphibolite-facies metamorphism.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
The Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-4) is a collaborative federal geoscience program that provides industry with the next generation of geoscience knowledge and innovative techniques to better detect buried mineral deposits, thereby reducing some of the risks of exploration. This volume summarizes 12 research activities completed under the TGI-4 volcanogenic massive sulphide ore systems project that focused on the understanding of the genesis of precious metal enriched VMS deposits as well as on VMS vectoring and unconventional detection methods development.

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