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TitleFluid inclusion and stable isotope evidence for mixing of magmatic- hydrothermal fluids with meteoric water in vein-type Cu-Au-Bi deposits, southern New Brunswick, Canada
AuthorHanley, J J; Tweedale, F; Neyedley, K; Sharpe, R; Fayek, M
SourceGeological Association of Canada-Mineralogical Association of Canada, Joint Annual Meeting, Abstracts Volume vol. 37, 2014 p. 112
LinksOnline - En ligne (PDF 8.75 MB)
MeetingGAC-MAC Joint annual meeting; Fredericton, NB; CA; May 2014
Mediaon-line; digital
RelatedThis publication is related to Hanley, J J; Tweedale, F; Neyedley, K; Sharpe, R; Fayek, M; (2015). Fluid inclusion and stable isotope evidence for mixing of magmatic - hydrothermal fluids with meteoric water in vein-type Cu-Au-Bi deposits, southern New Brunswick, Canada, TGI 4 - Intrusion Related Mineralisation Project: new vectors to buried porphyry-style mineralisation, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 7843
File formatpdf
ProvinceNew Brunswick
AreaCaledonian Highlands
Lat/Long WENS-66.0000 -64.0000 46.0000 45.0000
Subjectsgeochemistry; metallic minerals; fluid inclusions; magmatic deposits; hydrothermal alteration; mineral deposits; copper; gold; bismuth; stable isotope studies; quartz veins; salinity; mineralization; vein deposits; meteoric waters; Broad River Group
ProgramTargeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-4), Intrusion/Porphyry Ore Systems
AbstractVein-type Cu-Au-Ag-Bi mineralization in the Caledonian Highlands, southern NB, Canada, is hosted within quartz-carbonate-rich shear zones cutting felsic lithic tuffs, intermediate intrusives and interbedded felsic and mafic flows of the Neoproterozoic Broad River Group. Mineralization in the veins consists of bornite-chalcocite-hematite, coprecipitated with electrum and bismuthinite; ore minerals post-date quartz and REE-rich carbonates in the veins, with later supergene oxidation and hydration of the ores to cuprite-malachite. Wall-rock alteration is characterized by albitization and paragonitization. Replacement of bornite by chalcocitehematite indicates changes in fluid redox with mineralization progression.
Trails of secondary fluid inclusions in the quartz veins are two-phase liquid-vapour at room temperature. Homogenization occurs by vapour bubble disappearance between 150-270°C for all assemblages; individual assemblages show relatively narrow ranges (e.g., 173-191°C, n=22). Bulk salinities from final ice melting range from 4 to 13 wt% NaCl eq. with individual assemblages showing similarly narrow ranges.
Stable isotope data (bulk separates, and in-situ by secondary ion mass spectrometry [SIMS]) for vein-stage quartz (d18Obulk = 13.7-15.1 per mil; d18OSIMS-qtz = 10.8±1.5 per mil, 1?, n=32) and carbonate (d13Cbulk = -4.4 to -4.6 per mil) combined with microthermometric data rule out unmodified, heated seawater and meteoric water as the dominant fluid components, and suggest that the metal-bearing fluids were magmatic in origin or represented saline formation waters modified through fluid-rock interaction with the host volcanic rocks (calculated d18Ofluid ~ 6-7 per mil). However, significant variations in ?18OSIMS-qtz are observed within single quartz crystals across growth zones and in massive quartz texturally predating sulfides and gold (from as low as 8.2 per mil to 14.8 per mil in quartz enclosed entirely within bornite-chalcocite). This indicates either (i) localized mixing of the metal-bearing fluid with low latitude meteoric water (calculated d18O = -1.0 to 0 per mil), or (ii) fluctuations in fluid temperature during vein formation, with the lowest T portions of the vein associated with base metal-gold precipitation, or (iii) both. The isotopic composition of coeval quartz-carbonate predict a crystallization/final equilibration T of vein-stage at ~250-270°C; if inclusions are primary, then a maximum Ptrapping = ~1.5 kbar, based on the lowest T assemblages, is estimated.
Significant fluctuations in fO2, fluid temperature or fluid composition during vein precipitation highlight the importance of fluid mixing for mineralization. These characteristics, combined with the style of mineralization, link these deposits in NB genetically to much larger vein Cu deposits worldwide (e.g., Churchill, Davis-Keays, and Mamainse Point, Canada; Inyati, Zimbabwe; Copper Hills, Australia; Messina, South Africa; Cornwall, UK).