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TitleZinc-rich volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits
AuthorPiercey, S J; Peter, J M; Goodfellow, W D; Herrington, R M
SourceProceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Materials Engineering for Resources (ICMR 2013); by Irish Association for Economic Geology; 2013.
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20140448
MeetingSeventh International Conference on Materials Engineering for Resources (ICMR 2013); Akita City; JP; November 20-22, 2013
Mediadigital; on-line
Subjectsmetallic minerals; volcanogenic deposits; sulphide deposits; zinc; metallogeny; ore mineral genesis; mineral deposits; depositional environment
ProgramTargeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-4), Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Ore Systems
AbstractVolcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits are important contributors to global Zn resources. There are zinc-rich VMS deposits (defined here as >1 Mt contained Zn) in many of the VMS deposit sub-classes, but they are primarily hosted by felsic volcanic (e.g., bimodal mafic, bimodal felsic, and felsic siliciclastic types) and sedimentary (i.e., felsic siliciclastic and to a lesser extent mafic siliciclastic types) rocks. Although Zn-rich VMS deposits have formed throughout geological time, the contained Zn in these deposits is clustered in distinct peaks in the late Archean, Paleoproterozoic, late Cambrian-early Ordovician, and late Devonian-early Mississippian, and late Triassic. The key features that appear to result in the formation of Zn-rich (i.e., high grade and/or large tonnage) VMS deposits include: 1) optimal geodynamic setting (i.e., rifts, high-temperature magmatism, coincidence with crustal growth or plate reorganization); 2) associated with sediments and sediment-rich basins; 3) substantial subseafloor replacement; 4) local to global anoxia; 5) welldeveloped cap rocks; 6) anomalously high fluid salinities; and 7) caldera formational setting. These features are not universally present in all Zn-rich VMS systems, but most Zn-rich VMS systems contain a number of these features.