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TitleSatellite interferometry for high-precision detection of ground deformation at a carbon dioxide storage site
AuthorSamsonov, SORCID logo; Czarnogorska, M; White, DORCID logo
SourceInternational Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control vol. 42, 2015 p. 188-199,
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20140435
PublisherElsevier BV
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
Lat/Long WENS-103.1667 -103.0000 49.1667 49.0500
Subjectsgeophysics; environmental geology; remote sensing; satellite imagery; deformation; carbon dioxide; gas storage; underground storage; underground gas storage; gas; DInSAR; MSBAS; RADARSAT-2
Illustrationslocation maps; satellite images; tables; histograms; plots
ProgramEnvironmental Geoscience
Released2015 11 01
AbstractAt the Aquistore CCS site, located in the southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada, carbon dioxide (CO2) isto be injected at variable rates of up to 1500 tonne/day. The storage reservoir consists of a dominantlyclastic, brine-filled interval (Deadwood and Winnipeg formations) which reside at 3150-3350 m depth.Ground deformation at this site is being monitored to track pressure-induced uplift and potential upwardmigration of CO2through faults and fractures. Deformation monitoring is conducted using space-borneDifferential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR), capable of achieving millimeter precisionand meter spatial resolution over the entire monitored area. During June 2012-October 2014, prior toCO2injection, two ascending and two descending high-resolution RADARSAT-2 data sets were acquiredand simultaneously processed with the advanced Multidimensional Small Baseline (MSBAS) DInSAR pro-ducing vertical and horizontal East-West deformation time series with six days temporal sampling, fourtimes more frequent than the repeat cycle of each individual data set. Two years of monitoring prior tothe onset of (CO2) injection allowed measurement of the deformation field of the background naturaland anthropogenic processes. Vertical and horizontal ground deformation was detected with the ratesof ±1.0 and ±0.5 cm/year and with precision of 0.3 and 0.2 cm/year (2\'02) correspondingly. Backgroundmotion (shape and magnitude) may resemble deformation signals due to potential upward migration ofCO2through faults and fractures. Analytic elastic and poroelastic modeling was performed to estimatethe ground deformation that will be produced when injection begins. For this purpose, rock propertiesdetermined from geophysical well logs and in situ temperature and pressure were used. For the elasticmodel it was determined that a maximum of vertical deformation of 1.6 cm/year will be located aroundthe injection well, whereas the maximum of horizontal deformation of 0.6 cm/year will be located about3 km away from the injection well. For a more realistic poroelastic model, it was determined that maxi-mum vertical deformation will not exceed 1.6 cm and maximum horizontal deformation will not exceed0.1 cm/year during the entire 25 year injection cycle. According to this model, the established monitoringnetwork cannot detect predicted horizontal motion since it is below its sensitivity, whereas for detectionof vertical motion ground-based monitoring sites need to be installed near and also at distance from theinjection well. Six day temporal sampling allows determination of the transient uplift phase. A proposedMSBAS strategy overcomes limitations of the classical DInSAR, such as sparse temporal resolution andthe lack of ability to extract individual deformation components from the line-of-sight retrievals, and canbe implemented at other onshore CCS sites for operational monitoring, using readily available SAR data.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
We designed monitoring methodology for detecting ground deformation at Aquistore Carbon storage site in Saskatchewan, Canada using satellite radar. Additionally we produced deformation maps of background processes occurring at this site during 2012-2014. This research may be of interest to other scientists and industry specializing in geological carbon storage.

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