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TitleMethodology for simulation of geomagnetically induced currents in power systems
AuthorBoteler, D H
SourceJournal of Space Weather and Space Climate vol. 4, pt. A21, 2014, 11 pages, https://doi.org/10.1051/swsc/2014018
Year2014
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20140384
PublisherEDP Sciences
Documentserial
Lang.English
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; html
Subjectsgeomagnetically induced currents (GIC); electric field; modelling; electromagnetism; methodology
Illustrationsdiagrams; graphs
ProgramTargeted Hazard Assessments in Northern Canada, Public Safety Geoscience
AbstractTo assess the geomagnetic hazard to power systems it is useful to be able to simulate the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) that are produced during major geomagnetic disturbances. This paper examines the methodology used in power system analysis and shows how it can be applied to modelling GIC. Electric fields in the area of the power network are used to determine the voltage sources or equivalent current sources in the transmission lines. The power network can be described by a mesh impedance matrix which is combined with the voltage sources to calculate the GIC in each loop. Alternatively the power network can be described by a nodal admittance matrix which is combined with the sum of current sources into each node to calculate the nodal voltages which are then used to calculate the GIC in the transmission lines and GIC flowing to ground at each substation. Practical calculations can be made by superposition of results calculated separately for northward and eastward electric fields. This can be done using magnetic data from a single observatory to calculate an electric field that is a uniform approximation of the field over the area of the power system. It is also shown how the superposition of results can be extended to use data from two observatories: approximating the electric field by a linear variation between the two observatory locations. These calculations provide an efficient method for simulating the GIC that would be produced by historically significant geomagnetic storm events.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
Space weather refers to the dynamic conditions on the Sun and in the space environment, in particular, in the near-Earth environment, that can affect critical infrastructure. NRCan operates the Canadian Space Weather Forecast Centre and conducts research into space weather effects on power systems, pipelines, radio communications and GNSS positioning to help Canadian industry understand and mitigate the effects of space weather. Assessment of geomagnetic hazard requires accurate modeling of the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) that are expected to occur during a given geomagnetic disturbance (GMD). This paper shows how power network analysis techniques can be used to provide an efficient method for simulating the GIC produced by historically significant geomagnetic storm events.
GEOSCAN ID295708