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TitleTill geochemical signatures of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits: an overview of Canadian examples
AuthorMcClenaghan, M B; Peter, J M
SourceGeochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis 2015 p. 1-21,
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20140268
PublisherGeological Society of London
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectssurficial geology/geomorphology; geochemistry; tills; till analyses; till geochemistry; volcanogenic deposits; sulphide deposits; sulphides; drift geochemistry; drift prospecting; copper; lead; zinc; gold; silver; mineralization
Illustrationslocation maps; diagrams; cross-sections
ProgramTargeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-4), Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Ore Systems
Released2015 08 28
AbstractVolcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits are an important source of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ag in Canada. These deposits formed on the paleo-seafloor in volcanic or volcano-sedimentary rocks. On the glaciated landscape of Canada, the bulk composition of till (so-called ¿till geochemistry¿) is an important exploration method for VMS deposits. Herein we provide an overview of the 50-plus year history of the application of till geochemical methods to VMS exploration in Canada, and summarize best practices, including appropriate size fractions of till to analyze, analytical techniques and pathfinder elements. Till geochemical methods are now well-developed and used widely, most commonly employing the <0.063 mm till fraction and an extensive suite of VMS indicator elements Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, and Ag, as well as pathfinder elements Co, Tl, Sn, Se, Hg, In, Cd, Bi, As, Sb, and Ge. In order to detect the clastic glacial dispersal signal down-ice of a VMS deposit, unoxidized to weakly oxidized till should be collected and analyzed, and not B-horizon soil. Case studies and examples of glacial dispersal patterns associated with known VMS mineralization in major mining camps and deposits across Canada are highlighted.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
The Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-4) is a collaborative federal geoscience program that provides industry with the next generation of geoscience knowledge and innovative techniques to better detect buried mineral deposits, thereby reducing some of the risks of exploration. This journal paper describes the history of the use of till geochemistry to support exploration for volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits in the glaciated landscape of Canada. The method has been used for more the 50 years. This deposit type is a major source copper, lead and zinc to Canada. This paper will be used by explorationists in Canada and around the world to assist in their exploration for this type of base metal deposit.