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TitleFreeze-up and break-up of rivers and lakes / Gel et débâcle des glaces des cours d'eau et des lacs
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AuthorCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
SourceHydrological Atlas of Canada 19, 1978, 1 sheet
Year1978
PublisherCanada Surveys and Mapping Branch
Documentserial
Lang.English; French
Maps1 map
Map Info.hydrographic, 1:10,000,000
ProjectionLambert Conformal Conic Projection
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf; jpg
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental geology; hydrology; climate; runoff; lakes; rivers; water levels
Abstract(unpublished)
The plate contains four maps showing the mean river freeze-over date, the mean lake freeze-over date, the mean river ice-free date and the mean lake ice free date. The four maps depict, in a general way, the average dates on which freshwater bodies in Canada become completely ice-covered in the fall, and become completely ice-free in the spring. The formation of an ice cover on a water body is called freeze-up; and the melting and dissipation of this ice cover is called break-up. Freeze-up begins when surface water is cooled to 0 degrees Celsius and ice crystals begin to form; it ends when the water body has attained its maximum ice coverage. Most lakes freeze over completely; rivers may or may not, depending on their location, size, and flow characteristics. The final stage of the freeze-up process may be termed freeze-over. Break-up normally begins when air temperatures rise above 0 degrees Celsius, and when surface and internal melting of the ice sheet begins. The process is aided by the action
GEOSCAN ID295284