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TitleParis and Galt Moraines, southern Ontario: depositional elements, paleoglacial implications, and hydrogeological applications
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AuthorRussell, H A J; Bajc, A; Sharpe, D R; Cummings, D I
SourceGeological Survey of Canada, Open File 7153, 2013, 1 sheet, https://doi.org/10.4095/292705
Year2013
Documentopen file
Lang.English
Mediaon-line; digital
File formatpdf
ProvinceOntario
NTS30M/04; 30M/05; 30M/11; 30M/12; 30M/13; 30M/14; 40I/09; 40I/10; 40I/15; 40I/16; 40P/01; 40P/02; 40P/07; 40P/09; 40P/16
AreaWaterloo; Hamilton; Galt; Paris; Brampton
Lat/Long WENS-81.0000 -79.7500 44.0000 42.5000
Subjectssurficial geology/geomorphology; hydrogeology; stratigraphy; aggregates; pits; landform classification; glacial landforms; landforms; moraines; drumlins; moraines, hummocky; hummocks; outwash plains; sedimentary rocks; glacial deposits; glaciofluvial deposits; depositional environment; depositional history; tills; sediments; gravels; sands; muds; Waterloo Moraine; Paris Moraine; Galt Moraine; Wentworth Till; Port Stanley Till; Cenozoic; Quaternary
Illustrationslocation maps; photographs; cross-sections; histograms; stratigraphic columns
Viewing
Location
 
Natural Resources Canada Library - Ottawa (Earth Sciences)
 
ProgramAquifer Assessment & support to mapping, Groundwater Geoscience
Image
Released2013 07 03
AbstractMoraines have been mapped in Southern Ontario for nearly one hundred years (Taylor, 1913), yet their composition and depositional origin remains poorly understood. Moraines in this area have been assigned to one of two classes: i) stratified interlobate moraines and ii) till or recessional moraines. The Paris and Galt moraines were assigned to the till or recessional moraine class (eg. Chapman & Putram, 1943). The Paris and Galt moraines are 130 km long, are up to 11 km wide, and have relief of 30 m. They evolve from two distinct ridges in the south to a broad hummocky terrain with multiple ridges and secondary landscape elements (kettle depressions, eskers, subaerial fans, channels) northward. These geomorphic changes are mirrored by changes in geology, thickness, and stratigraphy.
Continuous cores from boreholes reveal that the Paris moraine consists of a succession of intercalated gravel and diamicton. Depending on the geographic location, a number of units can underlie the moraine, including bedrock, older till, lacustrine sediment, and glacifluvial gravel. Outcrop data suggest northern and southern parts of the moraine are different. Within the southern mud-rich glacilacustrine basin, large sand and gravel foresets of 10 m height occur at the base of pit exposures. By contrast, horizontally stratified outwash gravel is common in northern pits. Wentworth TiIl covers a large part of the moraine, it is massive to stratified and is locally interbedded with sand and gravel. Where overlain by the surficial gravel, its upper contact can be loaded.
The moraine strata are interpreted to have been deposited by a fluctuating, retreating ice margin with a highly variable meltwater flux both, spatially and temporally. The narrow, southern moraine ridges may represent more rapid deposition within a glacial lake basin, whereas the northern, broader hummocky terrain is interpreted to have been deposited in a terrestrial environment. The moraine is significant hydrogeologically because the hummocky terrain may enhance recharge to bedrock and sand and gravel aquifers at depth.
GEOSCAN ID292705