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TitleSeismic characterization and time-lapse imaging during seven years of CO2 flood in the Weyburn field, Saskatchewan, Canada
AuthorWhite, DORCID logo
SourceInternational Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control vol. 16S, 2013 p. S78-S94,
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20120442
PublisherElsevier BV
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
Lat/Long WENS-104.0000 -103.5000 49.7500 49.5000
Subjectsgeophysics; environmental geology; seismic surveys; seismic interpretations; carbon dioxide; gas storage; seismic methods; seismic profiles; Weyburn field
Illustrationslocation maps; geophysical logs; profiles
Abstract3D time-lapse seismic monitoring has been conducted over a seven-year period of CO2 injection within the Weyburn field, Saskatchewan, as part of an enhanced oil recovery operation. 3D monitor seismic volumes, acquired in 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2007, were processed in parallel resulting in good data repeatability with global NRMS values of 0.30–0.34. Time-lapse amplitude and travel time difference maps that include the reservoir interval depict changes that exceed background noise levels. Comparison with reservoir flow simulations show good correlation with injection-related reservoir changes, and demonstrate that the CO2 plume outline can generally be tracked. Pressure changes within the reservoir are inferred to have a limited contribution to the time-lapse signal based on qualitative comparison with flow simulations. Lateral heterogeneity within the reservoir and injection procedures affect the observed seismic response due to CO2 in the subsurface, emphasizing the need to combine seismic observations with reservoir simulations, calibration and an appropriate rock physics model in order to achieve robust semi-quantitative CO2 quantity estimates.

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