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TitleBest practices for validating CO2 geological storage - observations and guidance from the IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 monitoring and storage project
AuthorWhite, D JORCID logo
Source 2012, 353 pages
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20120116
PublisherGeoscience Publishing
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
ProvinceSaskatchewan; Manitoba
AreaMidale; North Dakota; Canada; United States of America
Lat/Long WENS-104.0769 -99.4156 50.4853 45.9511
SubjectsScience and Technology; carbon; Weyburn Field
Illustrationslocation maps; diagrams; charts; graphs; isopach maps; stratigraphic columns
ProgramEnvironmental Geoscience Carbon Capture & Storage
Released2012 01 01
AbstractField-based geophysical monitoring methods utilized or considered in the WMP are described in this section with a focus mainly on monitoring of the deep portion of the storage complex. In Section 5.2 the physical properties of the rock/fluid system that make them amenable to geophysical monitoring are considered as a function of depth for a generic rock column and then specifically for the Weyburn field reservoir rocks. Section 5.3 discusses feasibility studies for utilizing various non-seismic monitoring techniques including InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar), LEERT (Long-Electrode Electrical Resistance Tomography), and gravity. Section 5.4 provides a description of downhole geophysical methods that were employed in the WMP with an assessment of their effectiveness. Section 5.5 is the most extensive section as it focuses on 3D seismic methods which constituted the primary geophysical monitoring method employed in the WMP. Various aspects of the 3D seismic program are described including the variety of analysis methods that have been applied to isolate CO2 saturation versus pressure changes within the reservoir. Section 5.6 briefly considers the implications on monitoring programs in the case where no pre-CO2 injection baseline data was acquired. Finally, Section 5.7 presents some general recommendations for geophysical monitoring based on lessons learned from the WMP.
Summary(Plain Language Summary, not published)
Geophysical monitoring provides a means of tracking underground CO2 plumes at geological storage sites, as well as pressure changes and injection-induced ground deformation or micro-earthquakes. The geological characteristics of the storage site affect the types of geophysical method that will be most effective for this purpose. Several monitoring methods were considered for application in the Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project. In general, however, regional monitoring methods, such as satellite-based ground deformation measurements (InSAR) or gravity readings, are best applied in conjunction with other higher-resolution monitoring methods such as seismic methods. Downhole seismic techniques tested at Weyburn included continuous passive monitoring to detect microearthquakes and active-source methods to acquire high resolution images of the CO2 plumes. However, surface-based 3D seismic methods provide the most effective means of monitoring the subsurface distribution of CO2 over a large area.

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