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TitleEffect of interarray elevation differences on infrasound beamforming
AuthorEdwards, W N; Green, D N
SourceGeophysical Journal International 2012 p. 1-12,
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20110315
Mediaon-line; digital
File formatpdf
Subjectsgeophysics; seismic arrays; array seismology; seismic surveys; acoustic surveys
Illustrationsschematic diagrams; tables; plots
ProgramCanadian Hazard Information Service, Canadian Hazard Information Service
AbstractThe International Monitoring System infrasound network will, upon completion, contain 60 microbarometer arrays with apertures of between 1 and 4 km. These arrays are located within a variety of terrains, leading to large ratios of interelement elevation differences to array aperture for those arrays situated in areas of significant topography. Systematic errors in beamforming estimates caused by neglecting the vertical extent of the arrays, are quantified for both signal backazimuth and apparent velocity. Of the 43 arrays certified as of 2011 January, I14CL on Juan Fernandez Island has the greatest topography across an array, with a least-squares fitted plane through the array elements having an 8.1° slope from the horizontal (compared to a network mean of 1.6°). Beamforming errors (both backazimuth and apparent velocity) are a function of the arrival azimuth and become increasingly large for steeply inclined arrivals, such that systematic errors will be significantly larger for signals returned from the thermosphere compared to those from the stratosphere. At several arrays, azimuthal errors due to array topography are comparable in magnitude to deviations often associated with atmospheric
propagation. These findings are illustrated using signals recorded in Greenland at I18DK, where differences between results processed using both full 3-D array geometry and the 2-D (topography neglected) approximation exhibit good correspondence to theoretical predictions.