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TitleTen year performance evaluation of a field-scale zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier installed to remediate trichloroethene contaminated groundwater
AuthorPhillips, D H; van Nooten, T; Bastiaens, L; Russell, M I; Dickson, K; Plant, S; Ahad, J M E; Newton, T; Elliot, T; Kalin, R M
SourceEnvironmental Science & Technology (ES & T) vol. 44, no. 10, 2010 p. 3861-3869,
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20110090
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
Subjectshydrogeology; environmental geology; environmental impacts; environmental studies; heavy metals contamination; groundwater pollution; pollutants; groundwater geochemistry; groundwater; groundwater resources
Illustrationsplots; analyses; graphs
AbstractThe Monkstown zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (ZVI PRB), Europe's oldest commercially-installed ZVI PRB, had been treating trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated groundwater for about 10 years on the Nortel Network site in Northern Ireland when cores from the reactive zone were collected in December, 2006. Groundwater data from 2001-2006 indicated that TCE is still being remediated to below detection limits as the contaminated groundwater flows through the PRB. Ca and Fe carbonates, crystalline and amorphous Fe sulfides, and Fe (hydr)oxides have precipitated in the granular ZVI material in the PRB. The greatest variety of minerals is associated with a ~1-2 cm thick, slightly cemented crust on top (upgradient influent entrance) of the ZVI section of the PRB and also with the discontinuous cemented ZVI material (~23cmthick) directly below it. The greatest presence of microbial communities also occurred in the up-gradient influent portion of the PRB compared to its down-gradient effluent section, with the latter possibly due to less favorable conditions (i.e., high pH, low oxygen) for microbial growth.TheZVI filings in the down gradient effluent section of the PRB have a projected life span of >10 years compared with ZVI filings from the continuous to discontinuous cemented up-gradient ZVI section (upper ~25 cm) of the PRB, which may have a life span of only ~2-5 more years. Supporting Information from applied, multi-tracer testing indicated that restricted groundwater flow is occurring in the upper ~25 cm of the ZVI section and preferential pathways have also formed in this PRB over its 10 years of operation.