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TitleGeology, mineralogy, and sulfur isotope geochemistry of the Sargaz Cu - Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Sanandaj - Sirjan Zone, Iran
AuthorBadrzadeh, Z; Barrett, T J; Peter, J M; Gimeno, D; Sabzehei, M; Aghazadeh, M
SourceMineralium Deposita vol. 46, 2011 p. 905-923, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00126-011-0357-4
Year2011
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20100529
PublisherSpringer Nature
Documentserial
Lang.English
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
AreaKerman; Sanandaj-Sirjan; Iran
Lat/Long WENS 46.0000 60.0000 37.0000 28.0000
Subjectsmineralogy; geochemistry; economic geology; volcanogenic deposits; sulphide deposits; sulphides; mineralization; mineral deposits; copper; zinc; igneous rocks; volcanic rocks; Sargaz deposit; Mesozoic; Jurassic; Triassic
Illustrationslocation maps; photographs; stratigraphic columns; diagrams; photomicrographs; histograms; plots; ternary diagrams
Released2011 05 12
AbstractThe Sargaz Cu - Zn massive sulfide deposit is situated in the southeastern part of Kerman Province, in the southern Sanandaj - Sirjan Zone of Iran. The stratigraphic footwall of the Sargaz deposit is Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic (?) pillowed basalt, whereas the stratigraphic hanging wall is andesite. Mafic volcanic rocks are overlain by andesitic volcaniclastics and volcanic breccias and
locally by heterogeneous debris flows. Rhyodacitic flows and volcaniclastics overlie the sequence of basaltic and andesitic rocks. Based on the bimodal nature of volcanism, the regional geologic setting and petrochemistry of the volcanic rocks, we suggest massive sulfide mineralization in the Sargaz formed in a nascent ensialic back-arc basin. The current reserves (after ancient mining) of the Sargaz deposit are 3 Mt at 1.34% Cu, 0.38% Zn, 0.08%Pb, 0.24 g/t Au, and 7 g/t Ag. The structurally dismembered massive sulfide lens is zoned from a pyrite-rich base, to a pyrite± chalcopyrite-rich central part, and a sphalerite - chalcopyrite- rich upper part, with a sphalerite-rich zone lateral to the upper part. The main sulfide mineral is pyrite, with lesser chalcopyrite and sphalerite. The feeder zone, comprised of a vein stockwork consists of quartz - sulfide - sericite pesudobreccia and, in the deepest part, chlorite - quartz - pyrite pesudobreccia. Footwall hydrothermal alteration extends at least 70 - 80 m below the massive sulfide lens and more than a hundred meters along strike from the massive sulfide lens. Jasper and Fe - Mn bearing chert horizons lateral to the sulfide deposit represent low-temperature hydrothermal precipitates of the evolving hydrothermal system. Based on mineral textures and paragenetic relationships, the growth history of the Sargaz deposit is complex and includes: (1) early precipitation of sulfides (protore) on the seafloor as precipitation of fine-grained anhedral pyrite, sphalerite, quartz, and barite; (2) anhydrite precipitation in open spaces and mineral interstices within the sulfide mound followed by its subsequent dissolution, formation of breccia textures, and mound clasts and precipitation of coarse-grained pyrite, sphalerite, tetrahedrite - tennantite, galena and barite; (3) replacement of pre-existing sulfides by chalcopyrite precipitated at higher temperatures (zone refining); (4) continued "refining" led to the dissolution of stage 3 chalcopyrite and formation of a base-metal-depleted pyrite body in the lowermost part of the massive sulfide lens; (5) carbonate veins were emplaced into the sulfide lens, replacing stage 2 barite. The delta34S composition of the sulfides ranges from +2.8permil to +8.5permil (average, +5.6permil) with a general increase of delta34S ratios with depth within the massive sulfide lens and underlying stockwork zone. The heavier values indicate that some of the sulfur was derived from seawater sulfate that was ultimately thermochemically reduced in deep hydrothermal reaction zones.
GEOSCAN ID288190