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TitleEnhancement of solar wind low-energy energetic particles as precursor of geomagnetic disturbance in operational geomagnetic forecast
AuthorLam, H -L
SourceAdvances in Space Research vol. 43, 2009 p. 1299-1313,
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20100384
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
Subjectsgeophysics; geomagnetism; geomagnetic fields; geomagnetic variations; magnetic surveys; magnetic storms; magnetic interpretations
Illustrationsplots; histograms
ProgramTargeted Hazard Assessments in Northern Canada, Public Safety Geoscience
AbstractA study of the relationship between solar wind low-energy energetic particles using data from the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) onboard the Advanced Compositional Explorer spacecraft (ACE) and geomagnetic activity using data from Canadian magnetic observatories in Canada's polar cap, auroral zone, and subauroral zone was carried out for a period spanning 1997 - 2005. Full halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) were used to gauge the initial particle enhancements and the subsequent geomagnetic activity. It was found that maximum geomagnetic activity is related to maximum particle enhancements in a non-linear fashion. Quadratic fit of the data results in expressions that can be easily used in an operational space weather setting to forecast geomagnetic disturbance quantitatively. A superposed epoch analysis shows increase in particle flux level starts hours before geomagnetic activity attains its peak, affirming the precursory nature of EPAM particles for the impending geomagnetic impact of CME. This can supplement the decision process in formulating geomagnetic warning after the launch of CME from the Sun but before the arrival of shock at Earth. The empirical relationships between solar wind low-energy energetic particles and geomagnetic activity revealed in this statistical study can be easily codified, and thus utilized in operational space weather forecast to appraise the geoeffectiveness of the CME and to provide a quantitative forecast for maximum geomagnetic activity in Canada's polar cap, auroral zone, and subauroral zone after the occurrence of a CME.