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TitleAirborne electromagnetic surveys over concealed glacial aquifers, United States and Canada
AuthorSmith, B D; Abraham, J A; Lundstrom, S C; Oldenborger, GORCID logo
SourceProceedings of Near Surface 2010 - 16th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics; 2010, 4 pages
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20100216
MeetingNear Surface 2010, 16th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics; Zurich; CH; September 6-8, 2010
AreaBerrien County; Michigan; Ft. Peck Indian Reservation; Montana; Nebraska; Prairie Pothole; Spiritwood; Canada; United States of America
Subjectsgeophysics; hydrogeology; surficial geology/geomorphology; geophysical surveys; magnetic surveys; e m surveys; e m surveys, airborne; aquifers; groundwater; groundwater resources; glacial deposits; glacial features
Illustrationslocation maps
ProgramGroundwater Geoscience, Aquifer Assessment & support to mapping
AbstractOver the last decade, helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) frequency and time domain (HFEM and HTEM) electrical resistivity surveys have been performed over buried glacial features that constitute major aquifers in different regions of central North America. These surveys have been conducted to map geology, contaminants, and hydrogeology for groundwater studies. This paper summarizes the applications in four different glacial terrains. The HFEM systems applied in the surveys described here used frequencies from 400 to 140,000 Hz that, in electrically conductive areas may be limited to mapping depths less than 60 m. The HTEM survey described here used gate times from 50 microseconds to 5.4 milliseconds and can map to depths of more than 100 m. The HEM surveys provide an insight into subsurface mapping capabilities and into the hydrogeologic framework of buried glacial valleys that host important local and regional aquifers.

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