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TitleTowards a national tsunami hazard map for Canada: Tsunami Sources
AuthorLeonard, L J; Hyndman, R D; Rogers, G C
SourceProceedings of the 9th U.S. National and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering/Compte Rendu de la 9ième Conférence Nationale Américaine et 10ième Conférence Canadienne de Génie Parasismique; 1844, 2010, 10 pages
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20100015
Meeting4th International Tsunami Symposium, 9th US National and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering; Toronto; CA; July 25-29, 2010
RelatedThis publication is contained in Adams, J; Halchuk, S; Awatta, A; Adams, J; Halchuk, S; Awatta, A; (2010). Estimated seismic design values for Canadian missions abroad, Proceedings of the 9th U.S. National and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering
ProvinceEastern offshore region; Northern offshore region; Western offshore region; British Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectsgeophysics; tsunami; floods; flood potential; earthquakes; earthquake risk
Illustrationslocation maps
ProgramNational-Scale Geohazard Assessments, Public Safety Geoscience
AbstractWe present a summary of geological tsunami sources with the potential to threaten the coasts of Canada. The study is part of a Geological Survey of Canada project to quantify tsunami hazard with the aim of producing a national tsunami hazard map. The Pacific coast is most at risk. Large tsunamis resulting from M~9 Cascadia megathrust earthquakes have impacted the British Columbia coast on average every 500 years throughout the Holocene, most recently in A.D. 1700. Tsunami potential along the Explorer-North America margin and southern Queen Charlotte fault is not well understood. Far-field earthquake-generated tsunamis are also a significant hazard to the outer coast and inlets; the 1964 Alaska tsunami caused considerable damage in Port Alberni and other western Vancouver Island communities. Landslides can generate locally destructive tsunamis, especially in coastal fjords. A submarine slide in Kitimat Arm in 1975 produced a tsunami with amplitudes up to 8.2 m that caused extensive local damage. The Strait of Georgia (including lower elevations in greater Vancouver) may be at risk from submarine landslide tsunamis, e.g., from the unstable foreslope of the Fraser River Delta. Offshore Vancouver Island, continental slope failures have been mapped along the Cascadia subduction zone deformation front. Future landslides could generate locally destructive tsunamis, or may increase amplitudes of megathrust tsunamis. Canada's Atlantic coast is far from active plate boundaries, yet was the site of Canada's most tragic historical earthquake/tsunami. In 1929, an Ms 7.2 earthquake triggered the Grand Banks submarine slide, resulting in 3-8 m tsunami waves that killed 28 people in southern Newfoundland. Locally destructive tsunamis may result from other submarine landslides on the continental shelf edge and in the St. Lawrence Estuary. Far-field sources may include plate-boundary earthquakes in the Caribbean and offshore Gibraltar, and Canary Island volcanic flank failures. Little is known about the tsunami history of the Arctic coastline. Potential sources include submarine slope failures and large thrust earthquakes on the Mackenzie Delta front. Tsunami hazard in the Arctic is reduced by the extensive sea ice.