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TitleIndicator mineral and surficial geochemical exploration methods for kimberlite in glaciated terrain; examples from Canada
AuthorMcClenaghan, M BORCID logo; Kjarsgaard, B AORCID logo
SourceMineral deposits of Canada: a synthesis of major deposit-types, district metallogeny, the evolution of geological provinces, and exploration methods; by Goodfellow, W D (ed.); Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division, Special Publication no. 5, 2007 p. 983-1006
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20070222
PublisherGeological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division (St. John's, NL, Canada)
Mediapaper; DVD; digital
RelatedThis publication is contained in Mineral deposits of Canada: a synthesis of major deposit-types, district metallogeny, the evolution of geological provinces, and exploration methods
File formatpdf
ProvinceBritish Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Yukon; Nunavut; Canada
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectseconomic geology; surficial geology/geomorphology; geochemistry; mineral deposits; mineral occurrences; mineral potential; mineralization; diamond; kimberlites; exploration; mineral exploration; glacial deposits; geochemical analyses; geochemical surveys; till geochemistry; exploration methods; dispersal trains
Illustrationssketch maps; plots; tables; graphs
ProgramConsolidating Canada's Geoscience Knowledge
ProgramTargeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-3), 2005-2010
Released2007 01 01
AbstractDiamond exploration in Canada focuses on kimberlite, the primary host rock for diamonds in this country. Kimberlite is a mineralogically and geochemically distinct point source that yields discrete dispersal trains in glacial sediments and dispersion fans in stream sediments. This paper provides a summary of selected diamond exploration techniques used in the glaciated terrain of Canada, focusing on indicator mineral methods. Kimberlite indicator minerals, in general, are able to survive long distance glacial transport. The relative abundance of specific minerals in till, and to a lesser extent in stream sediments, is a function of the mineralogy of kimberlite(s) in the source areas. Indicator mineral distributions observed at a regional scale define the net effect of glacial dispersal, often along different ice flow directions. Local scale distributions define individual dispersal trains. The 0.25 to 2.0 mm fraction of heavy mineral concentrates prepared from till and fluvial sediments is typically used for indicator mineral surveys, with the finer (0.25-0.50 mm) fraction often providing the best results. Till geochemistry is gaining popularity in diamond exploration because it is significantly cheaper than indicator mineral analysis and it can be performed quickly. Important kimberlite pathfinder elements include Mg, Ni, Cr, Co, Ca, Fe, Ti, Nb, Ta, REE, K, Rb, Sr, and Ba, but will depend on the composition of the country rocks versus the kimberlite. Soil selective leaches, soil gas, and hydrogeochemistry, still in the developmental stages for kimberlite exploration, may prove to be useful exploration techniques for application at a local scale.

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