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TitleMetallogeny of the Sudbury Mining Camp, Ontario
AuthorAmes, D E; Farrow, C E G
SourceMineral deposits of Canada: a synthesis of major deposit types, district metallogeny, the evolution of geological provinces, and exploration methods; by Goodfellow, W D (ed.); Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division, Special Publication no. 5, 2007 p. 329-350
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, Contribution Series 20070200
PublisherGeological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division (St. John's, NL, Canada)
Mediapaper; DVD; digital
RelatedThis publication is contained in Goodfellow, W D; (2007). Mineral deposits of Canada: a synthesis of major deposit-types, district metallogeny, the evolution of geological provinces, and exploration methods, Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division, Special Publication no. 5
File formatpdf
NTS41I/05; 41I/06; 41I/07; 41I/10; 41I/11; 41I/12
Lat/Long WENS-82.0000 -80.5000 46.7500 46.2500
Subjectseconomic geology; mineralization; sulphides; nickel; copper; platinum; gold; mineral occurrences; mineral deposits; meteorite craters; hydrothermal alteration; hydrothermal deposits; breccias; depositional models; exploration methods; mineral exploration; trace element analyses; Sudbury Mining Camp; Sudbury Igneous Complex; Sudbury Structure; Onaping Formation; platinum group elements; Paleozoic; Proterozoic
Illustrationssketch maps; graphs; tables; plots
ProgramConsolidating Canada's Geoscience Knowledge
ProgramTargeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI-3), 2005-2010
AbstractThe Paleoproterozoic (1850 Ma) Sudbury Structure, the remnant of a deformed multi-ring impact basin, is host to an enormous amount of Ni-Cu-PGE sulphide mineralization. Sudbury is Canada's principal base metal mining district with 77 producing and past-producing Ni-Cu-PGE deposits and 11 Cu-Ni-PGE advanced exploration projects with a 1.655 billion tonne past production, reserve, and resource. The Sudbury region is also host to significant pre-1850 Ma mineral resources comprising uranium, Ni-Cu-PGE, Au-Cu, and Au deposits and syn-1850 Ma hydrothermal Zn-Pb-Cu deposits.

The1850 Ma world-class Ni-Cu-PGE deposits and minor hydrothermal Zn-Pb-Cu deposits within the basin are related to the Sudbury Igneous Complex, with over half of the Ni-Cu-PGE in Contact deposits, 25% in Offset deposits, approximately 15% in Frood-Stobie breccia belt deposits, and <10% in "footwall-hosted" deposits. Trace element signatures of the ores tend to be related to host rock (As, Sb) or deposit type (Zn, Cd, Pb). The key to effective exploration in the Sudbury camp is a solid understanding of the 3-D geology followed by appropriate EM/RIM geophysical methods that increase the sampling radius of drillholes.

The recognition of the evolution of the Sudbury area from a Ni-based camp to a polymetallic Ni-Cu-PGE producer is illustrated by the fact that over 50% of the exploration expenditures for 2005 focused on the footwall-hosted Cu-Ni- PGE systems due to the high Cu and PGE grades of the sulphide ore. The result was the discovery of new deposits (Levack Footwall Deposit) in a mature mining camp. New exploration models for low-sulphide, high-PGE (PM Deposit) styles of mineralization are being refined for both the North and South ranges. Base metal deposits are regularly discovered in the Sudbury camp with evolving deposit models, exploration techniques, and genetic models.