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TitleAn outline of reaction equilibrium
LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorFroese, E
SourceGeological Survey of Canada, Current Research (Online) 2006-H2, 2006, 12 pages; 1 CD-ROM, Open Access logo Open Access
PublisherNatural Resources Canada
Mediaon-line; CD-ROM; digital
RelatedThis publication is related to An outline of phase equilibrium
File formatpdf
Subjectsgeochemistry; equilibrium; phase equilibria; chemical analysis; chemical processes; thermodynamics; energy; temperature; pressure-temperature conditions
Illustrationsgraphs; diagrams
Released2006 09 01
AbstractThe consideration of the mole numbers of chemical species as variables characterizing a macroscopic state makes it possible to define the affinity of a chemical reaction in terms of thermodynamic concepts. This approach leads to the basic relationship of reaction equilibrium in a closed system with one chemical reaction:

where G is the total Gibbs energy, (epsilon) is the extent of reaction,Gi is the partial molar Gibbs energy of a species, and (nu)i is the stoichiometric coefficient. The partial derivative <> is commonly designated as the Gibbs energy change of reaction and given the symbol (Delta)G. At arbitrary values of (epsilon), (epsilon) can be regarded as a constraint keeping the system in a metastable equilibrium. Upon release of this constraint, a negative value of (Delta)G indicates a tendency of the reaction to proceed from reactants to products. Relationships required to evaluate (Delta)G at a given pressure, temperature, and composition of solid and gaseous species are discussed.

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