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TitleThe role of GIS and expert knowledge in 3-D modelling, Oak Ridges Moraine, southern Ontario
AuthorLogan, C; Russell, H A J; Sharpe, D R; Kenny, F M
SourceGIS for the Earth Sciences; by Harris, J R (ed.); Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 44, 2006 p. 519-541, (Open Access)
Alt SeriesGeological Survey of Canada, Contribution Series 2003096
Alt SeriesEarth Sciences Sector, General Information Product 18
Mediapaper; CD-ROM; on-line; digital
RelatedThis publication is contained in Harris, J R; (2006). GIS for the earth sciences, Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper vol. 44
File formatpdf
NTS30M/13; 30M/14; 30M/15; 30M/16NE; 30M/161W; 31C/04SW; 31C/04NW; 31D/01; 31D/02; 31D/03; 31D/04
AreaToronto; Newmarket; Trenton; Whitby; Port Hope; Aurora
Lat/Long WENS-80.0000 -77.7500 44.2500 43.7500
Subjectshydrogeology; stratigraphy; mapping techniques; computer mapping; modelling; digital terrain modelling; groundwater; aquifers; stratigraphic models; tills; glacial deposits; Oak Ridges Moraine; Newmarket Till; Halton Till; geographic information system applications; geographic information system; digital elevation models
Illustrationssketch maps; flow charts; block diagrams; histograms; cross-sections
ProgramOak Ridges Moraine NATMAP Project
AbstractA basin analysis approach is used to help understand a complex aquifer system in the Oak Ridges Moraine and Greater Toronto areas, southern Ontario, Canada. The aquifer complex consists of a sequence of discontinuous strata that have a prominent regional unconformity. To help visualize this architecture, a stratigraphic database has been developed and used to construct a 3-D stratigraphic model, through selective integration of disparate data. To accurately interpret borehole logs, geological context was supplied by using expert knowledge constrained with a conceptual stratigraphic framework. Utilizing a digital stratigraphic training framework derived from manually coded, high-quality data, an expert system automatically interpreted and coded a large number of low-quality water well records. The expert system was designed to emulate the manual borehole interpretation process by applying knowledge-based geological rules,
within the constraints of the digital training framework. Issues of poorly constrained interpolation due to sparse data are addressed by the integration of additional spatial rules defined by thematic map coverages within the expert system. As quantitative hydrogeological modelling moves to more regional scales, geological knowledge input becomes increasingly more valuable. The availability of seamless geological mapping improves 3-D modelling and helps to limit the effect of deficiencies in data coverage and data quality, often encountered in regional hydrogeological studies.