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TitleThe Laurentide and Innuitian ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum
AuthorDyke, A S; Andrews, J T; Clark, P U; England, J H; Miller, G H; Shaw, J; Veillette, J J
SourceQuaternary Science Reviews 21, 1-3, 2002 p. 9-31, (Open Access)
Alt SeriesGeological Survey of Canada, Contribution Series 2001080
PublisherElsevier BV
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
ProvinceCanada; Alberta; British Columbia; Manitoba; New Brunswick; Newfoundland and Labrador; Northwest Territories; Nunavut; Nova Scotia; Ontario; Prince Edward Island; Quebec; Saskatchewan; Yukon; Eastern offshore region; Northern offshore region
NTS1; 2; 3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 72; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 82; 83; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 92; 93; 94; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 102; 103; 104; 105; 106; 107; 114O; 114P; 115; 116; 117; 120; 340; 560
AreaHigh Arctic; Atlantic Provinces; Baffin Island; Hudson Bay; North America; Anticosti Island; Axel Heiberg Island; Baffin Bay; Banks Island; Brock Island; Bylot Island; Cape Aston; Cape Breton Island; Cape Cod; Cumberland Peninsula; Cumberland Sound; Ellesmere Island; Eureka Sound; Frobisher Bay; Gaspé Peninsula; Grand Banks; Gulf of St. Lawrence; Herschel Island; Hudson Strait; Jones Sound; Keewatin; Lake Erie; Lake Michigan; Lake Ontario; Lancaster Sound; Laurentian Channel; Foxe Basin; Long Island; Mackenzie River; Magdalen Islands; Massey Channel; Melville Island; Montana; Nares Strait; Wellington Channel; Notre Dame Channel; Parry Channel; Prince Patrick Island; Remote Lake; Nova Scotia; Canadian Arctic Archipelago; Yukon Territory; Porcupine River; Great Lakes; Labrador Sea; North Atlantic; Navy Board Inlet; Quebec Highlands; Richmond Gulf; Schefferville; Ungava Bay; Baumann Fiord; Canada; United States of America; Greenland
Lat/Long WENS-141.0000 -50.0000 90.0000 41.7500
Subjectssurficial geology/geomorphology; geochronology; Wisconsinian glacial stage; ice margins; ice retreat; sea level changes; ice thickness; ice flow; radiocarbon dating; carbon-14 dates; marine sediments; glacial history; glaciation; glaciology; deglaciation; offshore areas; glacial features; glacial deposits; glaciomarine deposits; glaciofluvial deposits; glaciolacustrine deposits; radiometric dating; continental slope; lake sediments; isotopic studies; sediment geochemistry; glacial landforms; core samples; till stratigraphy; fossils; climatic fluctuations; Laurentide Ice Sheet; Innuitian Ice Sheet; Last Glacial Maximum; Late Pleistocene; Late Wisconsinan; Middle Wisconsinan interstadial minimum; North Atlantic margin; Des Moines Lobe; Erie Lobe; James Lobe; Glacial Lake Old Crow; Mackenzie Lobe; Trinity Trough; Baffin Shelf; Holocene; Eastern Continental Shelf; Polar Continental Shelf; Plum Point Interstade; Anticosti Interstade; Ontario Lobe; Lake Michigan Lobe; Erie Interstade; Scotian Shelf; Magdalen Shelf; Gold Cove Advance; Younger Dryas; Hudson Strait Ice Stream; Greenland Ice Sheet; Sangamonian stage; Keewatin Sector; Labrador Sector; Baffin Sector; Lancaster Sound Ice Stream; ice flow patterns; AMS radiocarbon dating; ice volume; paleogeography; ice extent; ice configuration; Heinrich events; Heinrich layers; calving; cosmogenic exposure dating; ice divides; ice domes; isotopic stages; Quaternary; Cenozoic
Illustrationssketch maps; histograms; contour maps
ProgramPolar Continental Shelf Program
AbstractThe Late Wisconsinan advance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet started from a Middle Wisconsinan interstadial minimum 27-30 14C ka BP when the ice margin approximately followed the boundary of the Canadian Shield. Ice extent in the Cordillera and in the High Arctic at that time was probably similar to present. Ice advanced to its Late Wisconsinan (stage 2) limit in the northwest, south, and northeast about 23-24 14C ka BP and in the southwest and far north about 20-21 14C ka BP. In comparison to some previous reconstructions of ice extent, our current reconstruction has substantially more Late Wisconsinan ice in the High Arctic, where an Innuitian Ice Sheet is generally acknowledged to have existed, in the Atlantic Provinces, where ice is now thought to have extended to the Continental Shelf edge in most places, and on eastern Baffin Island, where ice probably extended to the fiord mouths rather than to the fiord heads. Around most of the ice margin, the Late Wisconsinan maximum ice extent either exceeded the extent of earlier Wisconsinan advances or it was similar to the Early Wisconsinan advance. Ice marginal recession prior to 14 14C ka BP occurred mainly in deep water and along the southern terrestrial fringe. However, Heinrich event 1 probably drew down the entire central ice surface at 14.5 14C ka BP sufficiently to displace the Labrador Sector outflow centre 900 km eastward from the coast of Hudson Bay. The onset of substantial ice marginal recession occurred about 14 14C ka BP in the northwest, southwest, and south but not until about 10-11 14C ka BP in the northeast and in the High Arctic. Thus, the period of maximum ice extent in North America generally encompasses the interval from ~24/21 to 14 14C ka BP, or considerably longer than the duration of the LGM defined as occurring during a period of low global sea level as well as during a time of relative climate stability ~18 14C ka BP. The interval of advance of much of the Laurentide Ice Sheet to its maximum extent (between ~27 14C ka BP and ~24 14C ka BP) coincides with a suggested interval of rapid fall in global sea level to near LGM levels.