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TitleOn the origin of the Oak Ridges Moraine
AuthorBarnett, P J; Sharpe, D R; Russell, H A JORCID logo; Brennand, T A; Gorrell, G; Kenny, F; Pugin, A
SourceCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences vol. 35, no. 10, 1998 p. 1152-1167, Open Access logo Open Access
LinksOak Ridges Moraine web site
LinksMoraine d'Oak Ridges, site web
Alt SeriesGeological Survey of Canada, Contribution Series 1997239
PublisherCanadian Science Publishing
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
NTS30M/13; 30M/14; 30M/15; 30M/16NW; 30M/16NE; 31C/04SW; 31C/04NW; 31D/01; 31D/02; 31D/03; 31D/04
AreaToronto; Newmarket; Port Hope; Whitby; Trenton
Lat/Long WENS-80.0000 -77.7500 44.2500 43.7500
Subjectssurficial geology/geomorphology; sedimentology; glacial deposits; moraines; sedimentation; depositional environment; depositional history; unconformities; glacial history; tills; lithofacies; deltaic deposits; glaciofluvial deposits; glaciomarine deposits; erosion; Oak Ridges Moraine; Halton Till; Newmarket Till; Cenozoic; Quaternary
Illustrationssketch maps; digital elevation models; block diagrams; seismic profiles; stratigraphic sections; photographs
ProgramNSERC Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
ProgramOak Ridges Moraine NATMAP Project
AbstractLandscape analysis, mapping, sedimentology, shallow geophysics, and borehole data are integrated to better understand the complex landform-sediment geometries and event sequences of the Oak Ridges Moraine, southern Ontario. A model for the origin of the Oak Ridges Moraine is based on the recognition that the moraine is built on a high-relief, erosional surface (unconformity) consisting of drumlin uplands and a network of deep, steep-walled, interconnected valleys (tunnel channels). The development of the moraine is thought to have occurred in four stages: I, subglacial sedimentation; II, subaqueous fan sedimentation; III, fan to delta sedimentation; IV, ice-marginal sedimentation. The model traces the transition from subglacial to proglacial conditions during moraine formation and examines the order and timing of sedimentation. It is thought that the early stages of moraine construction are better exposed in the east; in the west, these stages are buried by later stages.

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