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TitleHigh resolution regional hydrogeochemical baseline mapping of stream water of Wales, the Welsh borders and West Midlands region
AuthorSimpson, P R; Breward, N; Flight, D M A; Lister, T R; Cook, J M; Smith, B; Hall, G E M
SourceApplied Geochemistry vol. 11, no. 5, 1996 p. 621-632,
Alt SeriesInternational Geological Correlation Programme, Project 259
Alt SeriesGeological Survey of Canada, Contribution Series 1996406
PublisherElsevier BV
MeetingThird International Symposium on Environment Geology; 1994
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
AreaWales; West Midlands; United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Subjectsmathematical and computational geology; geochemistry; environmental geology; stream water geochemistry; data collections; mineralization; chemical analysis; acidity; drainage; hydrogeochemistry; environmental impacts; environmental studies; inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; Quaternary
Illustrationsanalyses; sketch maps
AbstractThe stream water hydrogeochemical database, produced by the Geochemical Baseline Survey (GBASE) of the British Geological Survey, has recently been enhanced in the light of experimental pilot studies in North Wales, to meet a wider range of economic and environmental objectives which require modern, integrated and strategic geochemical surveys for their implementation. Hydrogeochemical data are therefore now collected, in conjunction with geochemical data for stream sediments, soil samples and mineral concentrates. The density of sampling, based on the collection of stream water at near-baseflow conditions during the late summer period each year, has been increased to one site per 1.75 km2 and a broader spectrum of geochemical determinants introduced. Provisional regional datasets are being prepared for an extensive region covering Wales, the Welsh Borders, and part of the West Midlands representing over 17 000 sample sites. Bedrock geology and base metal sulphide mineralisation are particularly well reflected in the stream water chemistry at the regional scale. The influence of secondary factors, such as geomorphology, atmospheric controls, and anthropogenic contamination due to agriculture, urban, industrial and military developments, can also be readily distinguished. The data obtained by systematic high resolution sampling of first and second order streams, vary in concentration over three or four orders of magnitude for many of the analytes studied here. This compares with a range of only one or two orders of magnitude for many of the analytes in stream sediment samples. The extended range in values for stream water is an important factor in the gridding, plotting and production of relatively stable maps. They are relatively unaffected either by short temporal changes in stream water flow, which are attributable either to storm events noted during the sampling campaign, or by annual differences between wet and dry summers in different years. This has enabled a series of robust surface hydrogeochemical maps to be prepared for analytical data collected during the summer sampling campaigns conducted annually from 1989 to 1994. These maps provide a unique source of synoptic baseline information for a wide range of economic and environmental applications especially, when combined with other geoscience datasets in a GIS environment.