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TitleThe nature and properties of some western Canada Clays
LicencePlease note the adoption of the Open Government Licence - Canada supersedes any previous licences.
AuthorBrady, J G
SourceCanada Mines Branch, Technical Bulletin TB21, 1961, 33 pages, Open Access logo Open Access
PublisherCanada Mines Branch
Mediapaper; on-line; digital
File formatpdf
ProvinceAlberta; British Columbia; Manitoba; Saskatchewan
NTS62; 52M/04
Subjectsindustrial minerals; clay analyses; clay minerals; clay tests; clays; thermal analyses; x-ray diffraction analyses; Whitemud Formation; Cretaceous
Released1961 01 01; 2015 04 13
AbstractThe relation of physical properties to mineralogical composition of five clays from Western Canada which have been used for production of structural clay products is discussed. The clays are from Sidney, Manitoba; Estevan, Saskatchewan; Eastend, Saskatchewan; Alberta Cypress Hills, Alberta; and Surnas Mountain, British Columbia. It is shown that the Sidney and Estevan clays are heterogeneous mixtures consisting mainly of clay minerals, quartz, micaceous material, calcite, dolomite, and feldspar. As a result, these clays have low melting points and short firing ranges. The Eastend, Alberta Cypress Hills and Sumas Mountain No. 9 clays are not as heterogeneous as the Sidney and Estevan Buff clays: kaolinite, quartz, and micaceous material are their principal constituents. Consequently, they are more refractory and have a longer firing range for production of clay products than the Sidney and Estevan Buff clays. It is shown that montmorillonite increases the plasticity of clays but makes drying of clay products very difficult. Conversely, non-plastic ingredients such as quartz, feldspar and coarse mica the plasticity. Kaolinite, chlorite and illite are plastic ingredients. Clay materials, such as the Estevan Buff, which contain large quantities of calcite and dolomite usually have a short firing range and tend to produce a soft, porous fired product.

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